Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers closer to understanding actions of cells involved in atherosclerosis

11.09.2012
Researchers one step closer to understanding actions of cells involved in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in Canada

Researchers at St. Michael’s Hospital are one step closer to understanding why plaque bursts in coronary arteries and causes heart attacks.

The clue might be something called microRNA-145. MicroRNAs are short chains of bossy molecules that scientists are increasingly coming to realize control a wide variety of biological processes.

Dr. Subodh Verma, a cardiac surgeon at St. Michael’s, published a paper in the journal Circulation today, describing for the first time how microRNA-145 gene therapy can drastically reduce the severity and progression of atherosclerosis in mice.

In addition this approach appeared to make the atherosclerotic plaque more stable and less prone to burst.

Atherosclerosis, commonly called hardening of the arteries, is a condition in which fat, cholesterol and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques. It is the leading cause of death in Canada.

Dr. Verma said most heart attacks occur when plaques rupture like a broken eggshell and release their contents into the artery. Researchers are therefore looking for ways to reduce the size of plaques and make them more stable.

One of the key questions is what causes the outer layer of the plaque to finally burst – a layer of smooth muscle cells known as the fibrous cap. These cells undergo “phenotypic transformation” in response to various stressful environments and cardiovascular risk factors, making them more likely to rupture and cause heart attacks. MicroRNA-145 is one of the factors that appear to play a critical role in preventing the transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells into rupture-prone cells.

In atherosclerosis-prone animals, microRNA-145-based gene therapy reduced the plaque size by approximately 50 per cent and increased the collagen content of the plaque and fibrous cap area by 40 to 50 per cent, indicating that this therapy can reduce plaque buildup and also make it less prone to rupture, the inciting event of heart attacks.

The researchers also found that in human atherosclerotic plaques, the amount of microRNA-145 was reduced compared to normal arteries that were free of plaque, providing supporting human insights to the animal study.

"Atherosclerosis continues to be the number one killer in modern societies and finding new ways to treat this problem are needed," said Dr. Verma.

Dr. Fina Lovren, a senior research associate at St Michael’s Hospital, carried out the experimental work on this project under the direction of Dr. Verma.

About St. Michael's Hospital

St. Michael’s Hospital provides compassionate care to all who enter its doors. The hospital also provides outstanding medical education to future health care professionals in more than 23 academic disciplines. Critical care and trauma, heart disease, neurosurgery, diabetes, cancer care, and care of the homeless are among the Hospital’s recognized areas of expertise. Through the Keenan Research Centre and the Li Ka Shing International Healthcare Education Center, which make up the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, research and education at St. Michael’s Hospital are recognized and make an impact around the world. Founded in 1892, the hospital is fully affiliated with the University of Toronto.

For more information or to interview Dr. Verma, please contact:
Leslie Shepherd
Manager, Media Strategy
St. Michael's Hospital
416-864-6094 or 647-300-1753
shepherdl@smh.ca

Leslie Shepherd | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.smh.ca

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New study points the way to therapy for rare cancer that targets the young
22.11.2017 | Rockefeller University

nachricht Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Underwater acoustic localization of marine mammals and vehicles

23.11.2017 | Information Technology

Enhancing the quantum sensing capabilities of diamond

23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon

23.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>