Some people develop invasive bladder cancer, which is where the cancer has grown through the muscle layer of the bladder. When this occurs, there is a higher risk that the cancer will spread to other areas of the body and it is much more difficult to treat.
Until now the signalling process that allows a benign, small polyp to develop into something that spreads and is invasive has not been clear. But research carried out by a team at Plymouth University has for the first identified an important mechanism behind this process.
The research is published today 1st August 2013 in the American Journal of Physiology – Renal Physiology.
Key to the research is a protein, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI), which is present in most bladder cancers. The research has identified the role PSTI plays in the signalling process that allows the spread and invasion of bladder cancer.
By understanding the process by which this protein helps the cells to spread, and invade into other tissue, researchers can start to develop ways to interrupt this process, potentially leading to new treatments.. This has the potential to improve the survival and life quality of those with early diagnosed bladder cancer, and reduce the instances where rigorous drug regimes or invasive surgery are required.
The research was led by Professor Raymond Playford and Dr. Tanya Marchbank from Plymouth University. Professor Playford said: "Although bladder cancer can be readily treated if caught early enough, once it starts to invade into deeper tissues and spread to distant sites it is a much more difficult, painful and life-affecting cancer to live with. Treatment becomes more difficult as tumours grow deeper into the bladder wall and spread, and survival rates decline – it is estimated that just 25 per cent of those with severe invasive bladder cancer will be alive and well three years after diagnosis and treatment. By identifying the mechanism by which bladder cancer develops and spreads, we hope that in time therapies that manipulate this mechanism may be developed to improve the quality of life and survival rates of those with invasive bladder cancer."
Note to Editors
Bladder cancer symptoms include blood in the urine, the need to pass urine frequently, the need to pass urine urgently, and pain when passing urine. However, these symptoms are not exclusive to bladder cancer and may indicate other conditions, such as a urine infection. If these symptoms are present it is advisable to have them checked by a doctor
Bladder cancer usually takes a long time to develop and is most common in people aged between 50 and 80. It is unusual in those under 40 years of age
A number of factors increase the risk of bladder cancer, including: smoking; chemicals at work; treatment for other cancers; prostate surgery; diabetes; repeated bladder infections; bladder stones; diet and alcohol intake; family history; early menopause
Source: Cancer Research UK
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