But how safe are the auxiliary reproductive technologies (ART)? Having summarized the data accumulated by the world science, specialists of the Research Institute of Medical Genetics (Tomsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences) tried to look into only one aspect of the ART safety – risk of genomic imprinting diseases.
What kind of diseases are they? Normal mammal development requires that maternal and paternal gene sets differed functionally. In certain genes, only the maternal copy should work. And in others – only the paternal copy should. The mechanism regulating functional differences of parental genomes is called genomic imprinting. This is a complicated and multi-step process, which starts in the parental gametal cells, where special enzymes mark and disconnect the required genes (a human being has about 70 of them), and continues after impregnation. Heavy pathologies can be caused by failure of such marking at some stage, and several genomic imprinting diseases are known with human beings.
Genomic imprinting reacts to external factors, and the researchers expected that the auxiliary reproductive technologies could influence it. The first example of such influence was discovered in experiments on animals’ artificial impregnation. The “large posterity syndrome” sometimes develops with big horned cattle and sheep after embryo cultivation, the posterity weight often by twice exceeding the norm. Another important indication is increased fetus mortality in the course of pregnancy and in labour, at that the pregnancy is long and the delivery is difficult. The deceased fetus and new-borns have internal pathologies. The “large posterity syndrome” caused by derangements of genomic imprinting is very similar on the surface to the Wideman-Beckwith human syndrome arising for the same reason. In case of the Wideman-Beckwith syndrome, infants are born very big and with multiple pathologies. The syndrome frequency is normally one case per 12 to 15 thousand of new-borns, but it is several times higher with the children born with the help of the ART.
The researchers suggest several hypotheses explaining why genomic imprinting diseases occur more often in case of the ART than in case of traditional conception. Firstly, the process may be influenced by methodical peculiarities of artificial impregnation. In case of extracorporal fertilization, women are injected hormones to stimulate the ovulation. Possibly, gonadotropins accelerate maturation of ovums, which have not finished yet the genomic imprinting process. In some cases ovums have to be cultivated in nutrient medium prior to fertilization, and after fertilization embryos are bred on it before transplanting in the maternal organism. The nutrient medium composition and the lack of signals coming from the maternal organism in a normal case can also impact genomic imprinting, which takes place both in maturing ovums and in the developing embryo. It is not improbable that the genome marking can be influenced by cryopreservation of gametal cells and embryos, which is often practiced.Secondly, the ART enables the events that would have never happen in a natural way. Thus, “anomalous” ovums can mature in case of hormone stimulation, such ovums would have scarcely mature during a natural cycle. Spermatozoa also can have imprinting defects. Normally, their fertility is low but they can be used for artificial impregnation, and then trouble is inevitable. Finally, artificial impregnation makes it possible that ill children are born with infertile married couples who have predisposition to genomic imprinting diseases.
Nadezda Markina | alfa
Team discovers how bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor
20.01.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
20.01.2017 | Awards Funding
20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.01.2017 | Life Sciences