Astrocyte-derived CNTF switches mature RGCs to a regenerative state following inflammatory stimulation
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) normally fail to regenerate injured axons and undergo apoptosis soon after injury.
We have recently shown that lens injury (LI) or intravitreally applied zymosan allow RGCs to survive axotomy and regenerate axons in the injured optic nerve.
Activated macrophages and oncomodulin have been suggested to be the principal mediators of this phenomenon. However, several lines of evidence show that macrophage-derived factors alone cannot account for all the beneficial effects of intraocular inflammation.
We show here that LI or zymosan induce upregulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in retinal astrocytes and release CNTF independent of macrophages and activate the transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in RGCs. Levels of CNTF expressed in retinal glia and STAT3 activation in RGC were correlated with the time course of RGCs switching to an active regenerative state.
Intravitreal injections of antibodies against CNTF or a Janus-kinase inhibitor compromised the beneficial effects of LI, whereas an antiserum against oncomodulin was ineffective. Like the action of CNTF, the effects of LI were potentiated by drugs that increase intracellular cAMP levels, resulting in strong axon regeneration in vivo.
These data indicate that astrocyte-derived CNTF is a major contributor to the neuroprotective and axon-growth-promoting effects of LI and zymosan. These findings could lead to the development of a therapeutic principle for promoting axon regeneration in the CNS as a whole.
Willi Baur | idw
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...