An Emory-led team of scientists has discovered one important way in which chronic viral infections are able to evade the immune response. The research is reported this week online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Using a mouse model, the scientists found that a chronic strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) targeted a type of stromal cells in the lymphoid organs called fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC). In contrast, an acute strain of the virus had little effect on the FRC cells. FRC provide a three-dimensional framework used by immune cells to travel and interact with other immune cells within the lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes). These FRC are important for the initiation of immune responses to infections. The researchers found that widespread infection of the FRC caused a disruption of the function of these important stromal cells.
Last year a group of Emory scientists led by Rafi Ahmed, PhD, and graduate student Daniel Barber and their colleagues discovered in mice another way in which the immune reaction to chronic infections is blocked -- a pathway called PD-1 that blocked the response to the chronic strain of LCMV.
The current research was conducted by Scott N. Mueller, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Ahmed, a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar and director of the Emory Vaccine Center. The team also included scientists from the Emory Transplant Center and Emory School of Medicine, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
The research team discovered that infection of FRC may involve the previously discovered PD-1 pathway. The major ligand (binding molecule) for PD-1, PD-L1, is upregulated on FRC after infection. The PD-1 pathway may inhibit interactions between CD8+ T cells and FRC, preventing destruction of the FRC architecture in the spleen. This may help the virus to remain in infected FRC and contribute to long-term viral persistence.
"This research helps explain how the T-cell response can be suppressed in chronic viral infections," says Dr. Mueller. "As we learn more about the intricate mechanisms involved we will be able to develop better treatments, and potentially preventive vaccines, for chronic infections such as those caused by HIV and hepatitis C viruses."
Holly Korschun | EurekAlert!
Millions through license revenues
27.04.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences