A team of researchers, led by Richard L. Gallo, M.D., Ph.D., professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Dermatology at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine and the Dermatology section of the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, has determined that it is not one, but a combination of two abnormal factors, that result in rosacea.
“It’s like having lots of gasoline…and a match,” said Gallo, principal investigator of the study which will be published in the August 5 online edition of Nature Medicine. In essence, the researchers found that over-production of two interactive inflammatory proteins results in excessive levels of a third protein that causes rosacea symptoms, “a trifecta of unfortunate factors in people with rosacea,” according to Gallo.
Rosacea, which has been called adult acne, usually affects people with fair skin, between the ages of 30 and 60. Unlike acne, rosacea isn’t associated with a skin infection by one type of bacteria, although antibiotics are sometimes prescribed to treat its symptoms. A chronic condition, it gets worse over time and is generally cyclic, flaring up for a period of weeks to months, and then subsiding for a time. Current treatments are often not effective.
Gallo and his colleagues first observed in the laboratory that anti-microbial peptides – small proteins of the body’s host defense system – caused the exact same symptoms in the skin that rosacea does, such as redness, an increase in visible blood vessels, bumps or pimples. The peptides also reacted to the same triggers.
“When we then looked at patients with the disease, every one of them had far more peptides than normal.” said Gallo.
To learn why these patients have abnormal peptides, the researchers examined the source of these molecules. The precursor form of these peptides, called cathelicidin, is normally known for its function to protect the skin against infection. In other skin diseases, a deficiency of cathelicidin correlates with increased infection. In rosacea patients, researchers found the opposite was true; too much cathelicidin was present in their skin. They also observed that it was a different form than found in people without the skin disorder.
Patients with rosacea also had greatly elevated levels of enzymes called stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTE). These enzymes turned the precursor into the disease-causing peptide. By injecting mice with the cathelicidin peptides found in rosacea, or adding SCTE, they increased inflammation in the mouse skin, thus proving that these abnormalities can cause the disease.
“Too much SCTE and too much cathelicidin leads to the abnormal peptides that cause the symptoms of this disease,” said Gallo. “Antibiotics tend to alleviate the symptoms of rosacea in patients because some of them work to inhibit these enzymes. Our findings may modify the therapeutic approach to treating rosacea, since bacteria aren’t the right target.”
Debra Kain | EurekAlert!
Periodic ventilation keeps more pollen out than tilted-open windows
29.03.2017 | Technische Universität München
Improving memory with magnets
28.03.2017 | McGill University
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
29.03.2017 | Health and Medicine
29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences
29.03.2017 | Trade Fair News