Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are of zoonotic origin , and the closest simian relatives of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been found in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) respectively. Given that humans come in frequent contact with primates in many parts of subsaharan Africa, particularly through hunting and handling primate bushmeat the possibility of additional zoonotic transfers of primate lentiviruses from species other than chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys has to be considered. This risk can only be assessed by studying the prevalence, diversity and geographic distribution of SIVinfections in wild primate populations in this part of the world.
A team of researchers from IRD and projet PRESICA working with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry from Cameroon, realized the first comprehensive survey on siv prevalences in wild caught primates from cameroon, and provide a first approximation of the magnitude and variety of sivs to which humans are exposed to through contact with non-human primates.
Nearly 800 monkeys , hunted in the rainforests, and subsequently sold for their meat on markets in Yaoundé, surrounding villages and logging concessions, or kept as pets were tested for hiv cross-reactive antibodies. Strong serological reaction, indicating infection by an SIV, was found in 16.6% of the monkeys sampled. Out of 16 species, 13 were infected. Four of these had previously not been identified as carriers of the virus. Moreover, molecular analyses showed a great diversity among the viruses present in these monkeys, and five new SIV lineages were isolated and identified. These results bring to 30 the number of monkey species liable to SIV infection and provide the first evidence that SIV is widespread and extremely diverse among wild primates in Cameroon.
This study suggests a high degree of human exposure to SIV through hunting and handling monkeys for their meat, which is a common practice in Sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission of SIVs is most likely through contact with infected blood or other secretions and possibly bites from pet animals. Bushmeat hunting is ongoing for hundreds of years, but the bushmeat trade has increased in the last decades. Commercial logging has led to road constructions, human migration, and the development of social and economic networks into remote forest areas. These socioeconomic changes, combined with our estimates of siv prevalence and genetic complexity in wild living primates, would suggest that the magnitude of human exposure to siv has increased, as have the social and environmental conditions that would be expected to support the emergence of new zoonotic infections.
Marie-Lise Sabrie | alphagalileo
World first: Massive thrombosis removed during early pregnancy
20.07.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern
Therapy of preterm birth in sight?
19.07.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern
Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.
For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...
What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.
To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...
The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....
A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...
Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision
Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...
21.07.2017 | Event News
19.07.2017 | Event News
12.07.2017 | Event News
21.07.2017 | Earth Sciences
21.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
21.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy