Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are of zoonotic origin , and the closest simian relatives of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been found in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) respectively. Given that humans come in frequent contact with primates in many parts of subsaharan Africa, particularly through hunting and handling primate bushmeat the possibility of additional zoonotic transfers of primate lentiviruses from species other than chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys has to be considered. This risk can only be assessed by studying the prevalence, diversity and geographic distribution of SIVinfections in wild primate populations in this part of the world.
A team of researchers from IRD and projet PRESICA working with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry from Cameroon, realized the first comprehensive survey on siv prevalences in wild caught primates from cameroon, and provide a first approximation of the magnitude and variety of sivs to which humans are exposed to through contact with non-human primates.
Nearly 800 monkeys , hunted in the rainforests, and subsequently sold for their meat on markets in Yaoundé, surrounding villages and logging concessions, or kept as pets were tested for hiv cross-reactive antibodies. Strong serological reaction, indicating infection by an SIV, was found in 16.6% of the monkeys sampled. Out of 16 species, 13 were infected. Four of these had previously not been identified as carriers of the virus. Moreover, molecular analyses showed a great diversity among the viruses present in these monkeys, and five new SIV lineages were isolated and identified. These results bring to 30 the number of monkey species liable to SIV infection and provide the first evidence that SIV is widespread and extremely diverse among wild primates in Cameroon.
This study suggests a high degree of human exposure to SIV through hunting and handling monkeys for their meat, which is a common practice in Sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission of SIVs is most likely through contact with infected blood or other secretions and possibly bites from pet animals. Bushmeat hunting is ongoing for hundreds of years, but the bushmeat trade has increased in the last decades. Commercial logging has led to road constructions, human migration, and the development of social and economic networks into remote forest areas. These socioeconomic changes, combined with our estimates of siv prevalence and genetic complexity in wild living primates, would suggest that the magnitude of human exposure to siv has increased, as have the social and environmental conditions that would be expected to support the emergence of new zoonotic infections.
Marie-Lise Sabrie | alphagalileo
A promising target for kidney fibrosis
21.04.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital
Stem cell transplants: activating signal paths may protect from graft-versus-host disease
20.04.2017 | Technische Universität München
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
25.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
25.04.2017 | Materials Sciences
25.04.2017 | Life Sciences