Dr John Wagner, Division of Pediatric Haematology/Oncology and the Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Programme, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA, and colleagues studied 503 children under 16-years with acute leukaemia who had undergone transplantation with umbilical cord blood, and compared their outcomes with 282 children who had received bone marrow transplants.
The researchers found after transplants of umbilical cord blood HLA-mismatched for one or two antigens that survival rates for children after five years were similar to children who had received an allele-matched bone-marrow transplant.
For matched umbilical cord blood, survival rates appear greater – but although statistically significant, the number of children studied was small, and further study is required to confirm this finding.
They also concluded that early transplant-related mortality was more than twice as high in children who had been given umbilical cord blood HLA-mismatched for two antigens, regardless of the cell dose of blood given. For blood HLA-mismatched for one antigen, mortality rate was lower if higher cell doses were transplanted.
The authors conclude: “Our findings support the need for even greater investment in cord blood because of the importance of HLA matching and cell dose on survival. These data also support the practice of simultaneously searching accredited cord-blood banks and bone-marrow donor registries for all children with acute leukaemia who are eligible for transplantation of haemopoietic stem cells from unrelated donors. “
They conclude: “In the absence of a randomised trial, we cannot definitively state the relative efficacy of bone-marrow and blood-cord grafts, but the data support the use of cord-blood grafts in children with acute leukaemia.”
In an accompanying comment, Dr Vanderson Rocha and Dr Eliane Gluckman, Bone Marrow Transplant and Research Unit and Clinical Research Laboratory on Cell Therapy and Department of Haematology, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, France, say: “Wagner and colleagues data emphasise that an umbilical cord-blood graft should be searched for together with an unrelated allele-matched bone marrow. The decision to transplant cord blood or bone marrow is dependent on the time spent finding a suitable cord-blood graft or HLA-matched bone marrow, on the basis of cord-blood cell dose and HLA.
“Therefore, based on this study and others, we propose an algorithm to search for an alternative haemopoietic stem-cell donor.” (Please see full comment for algorithm)
Tony Kirby | alfa
Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
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Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
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