Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and is caused by infection with oncogenic (cancer causing) types of human papillomavirus. Around 500,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, 80% in developing countries, resulting in 250,000 deaths.
Dr Kevin Ault, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA and colleagues from around the world formed the Future II Study Group to investigate the efficacy of the vaccine.For women who have never had sex, the vaccine was 99% effective in stopping cervical cancer (adenocarcinoma in situ), and pre-cancerous lesions.
When data from women who could have been exposed was included, the vaccine efficacy was 44%.
The researchers enrolled over 20,000 women aged 15-26 from the Americas, Europe and Asia-Pacific in the study. Some 9,000 of these were given the full vaccine; around 1,200 were given a component of the vaccine and the rest a placebo.
The women involved were recruited at university student health centres, urban clinics, advertisements and by word of mouth. Healthy women who were not pregnant, had no report of a previous abnormal pap smear, and had a lifetime history of less than four to five sex partners were eligible.
The authors say that further follow-up of large trials will be needed to establish how long the vaccine remains effective.
They conclude: "The results of this quadrivalent HPV vaccine programme provide strong evidence that implementation of HPV vaccination campaigns in pre-adolescent girls and young adult women will reduce rates of cervical cancer worldwide."
In an accompanying comment, Dr Maurie Markman, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas, USA, says a number of questions remain around HPV vaccination, including how long the vaccine will work, the best age at which to administer it, its cost and whether men and boys should also be vaccinated.
He concludes: "Other important hurdles need to be overcome, including: the absence of health-delivery infrastructure in many countries to permit comprehensive vaccination programmes, the politically-charged debate surrounding the issue of voluntary versus mandatory vaccination, the existence of unsubstantiated claims that HPV vaccination will encourage promiscuity, and the belief by some that vaccination is unnecessary in the developed world due to the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening strategies."
Tony Kirby | alfa
Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections
23.05.2017 | University of Texas at Austin
Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care
The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.
The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
30.05.2017 | Life Sciences
30.05.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
29.05.2017 | Earth Sciences