Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and is caused by infection with oncogenic (cancer causing) types of human papillomavirus. Around 500,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, 80% in developing countries, resulting in 250,000 deaths.
Dr Kevin Ault, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA and colleagues from around the world formed the Future II Study Group to investigate the efficacy of the vaccine.For women who have never had sex, the vaccine was 99% effective in stopping cervical cancer (adenocarcinoma in situ), and pre-cancerous lesions.
When data from women who could have been exposed was included, the vaccine efficacy was 44%.
The researchers enrolled over 20,000 women aged 15-26 from the Americas, Europe and Asia-Pacific in the study. Some 9,000 of these were given the full vaccine; around 1,200 were given a component of the vaccine and the rest a placebo.
The women involved were recruited at university student health centres, urban clinics, advertisements and by word of mouth. Healthy women who were not pregnant, had no report of a previous abnormal pap smear, and had a lifetime history of less than four to five sex partners were eligible.
The authors say that further follow-up of large trials will be needed to establish how long the vaccine remains effective.
They conclude: "The results of this quadrivalent HPV vaccine programme provide strong evidence that implementation of HPV vaccination campaigns in pre-adolescent girls and young adult women will reduce rates of cervical cancer worldwide."
In an accompanying comment, Dr Maurie Markman, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas, USA, says a number of questions remain around HPV vaccination, including how long the vaccine will work, the best age at which to administer it, its cost and whether men and boys should also be vaccinated.
He concludes: "Other important hurdles need to be overcome, including: the absence of health-delivery infrastructure in many countries to permit comprehensive vaccination programmes, the politically-charged debate surrounding the issue of voluntary versus mandatory vaccination, the existence of unsubstantiated claims that HPV vaccination will encourage promiscuity, and the belief by some that vaccination is unnecessary in the developed world due to the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening strategies."
Tony Kirby | alfa
'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers
16.02.2018 | National University of Science and Technology MISIS
New process allows tailor-made malaria research
16.02.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...
Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters
Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...
Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).
Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
16.02.2018 | Information Technology
16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy