Professor Jorma Paavonen, Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, and colleagues carried out their analysis of three randomised clinical trials involving more than 18,000 women aged 16-26 years in 24 countries across Europe, Asia, and the Americas. The women were randomly assigned to receive either quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo.
The women were then followed up for an average of three years. Vaccine efficacy varied from 71% in women previously exposed to the human papillomaviruses to 100% in those not previously exposed. Additionally, a 49% reduction in all high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions, irrespective of casual HPV type, was seen in the intention-to-treat population of sexually active young women.
There has been a striking increase of high-grade vulval pre-cancer lesions and cancer over the past 30 years.
The authors say: “This trend is worrying because these cancers are not amenable to a screening programme. Whereas previously vulval cancer was seen almost exclusively in older women, recent studies have shown that 20% of these cancers now occur in women under 50 years.”
They add (although this quote is not within the article) “Vulval and vaginal cancers are often not recognised. Treatment of choice is surgery which can be mutilating, and causes anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunction and poor self image.”
They conclude: “In summary, these combined studies provide substantial evidence that a quadrivalent HPV L1 VLP vaccine is highly effective in preventing high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions associated with HPV16 or HPV18. The maximum effect of vaccination is expected in girls who are vaccinated in early adolescence, before exposure. The effect of vaccination in the general population of sexually experienced young women is expected to be lower initially, due to prevalent HPV infection.
“This intervention could greatly reduce the morbidity, mortality and health-care costs associated with these diseases.”
Tony Kirby | alfa
Usher syndrome: Gene therapy restores hearing and balance
25.09.2017 | Institut Pasteur
MRI contrast agent locates and distinguishes aggressive from slow-growing breast cancer
25.09.2017 | Case Western Reserve University
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
25.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
25.09.2017 | Health and Medicine
25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy