Professor Jorma Paavonen, Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, and colleagues carried out their analysis of three randomised clinical trials involving more than 18,000 women aged 16-26 years in 24 countries across Europe, Asia, and the Americas. The women were randomly assigned to receive either quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo.
The women were then followed up for an average of three years. Vaccine efficacy varied from 71% in women previously exposed to the human papillomaviruses to 100% in those not previously exposed. Additionally, a 49% reduction in all high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions, irrespective of casual HPV type, was seen in the intention-to-treat population of sexually active young women.
There has been a striking increase of high-grade vulval pre-cancer lesions and cancer over the past 30 years.
The authors say: “This trend is worrying because these cancers are not amenable to a screening programme. Whereas previously vulval cancer was seen almost exclusively in older women, recent studies have shown that 20% of these cancers now occur in women under 50 years.”
They add (although this quote is not within the article) “Vulval and vaginal cancers are often not recognised. Treatment of choice is surgery which can be mutilating, and causes anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunction and poor self image.”
They conclude: “In summary, these combined studies provide substantial evidence that a quadrivalent HPV L1 VLP vaccine is highly effective in preventing high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions associated with HPV16 or HPV18. The maximum effect of vaccination is expected in girls who are vaccinated in early adolescence, before exposure. The effect of vaccination in the general population of sexually experienced young women is expected to be lower initially, due to prevalent HPV infection.
“This intervention could greatly reduce the morbidity, mortality and health-care costs associated with these diseases.”
Tony Kirby | alfa
Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections
23.05.2017 | University of Texas at Austin
Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy