What is bronchiolitis?
Bronchiolitis is the most common severe lower respiratory infection in infants. It occurs when a viral infection causes infants’ lower airways to become inflamed. They have difficulty breathing, sleeping and feeding.
What is its incidence?
Bronchiolitis affects 10-20% of infants under the age of two. Three percent of these are admitted to hospital, meaning that around 1.8 million infants are taken to US hospitals each year. Of these, 2.7% need intensive care, 1.5% need ventilation and 0.2% die.
If there is no respiratory distress, feeding difficulties or specific risk factors, the infant can be treated at home with advice on when to return for re-assessment. If there are respiratory problems infants should be hospitalized and clinical treatment is normally limited to ensuring the infant is given adequate fluids, and oxygen. This can allow time for the infant to recover. Nebulised epinephrine may produce marginal relief, and could help some infants go home. The effect, however, is mild.
Various treatments have been tried in patients who are more severely affected, but none produce any marked effects. Bronchodilators and epinephrine produce no benefits, though some people suggest they may reduce restlessness and sleeplessness. Similarly, neither injecting steroids or immunoglobulins, nor giving vibration or percussive physiotherapy reduces symptoms.
A clear need for research
“What we need is a large randomised trial that carefully studies all of the currently available therapies and sees whether adjusting dose, type or frequency of treatment can produce greater benefit – then we need to examine new-comers,” says Dr. Michael Smith, author of the review, who works in the Department of Paediatrics, Craigavon Area Group Hospital Trust, Craigavon, Northern Ireland.
Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal is available online via Wiley InterScience, the online content service at: www.evidence-basedchildhealth.com
Polly Young | alfa
Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia
21.10.2016 | Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg
New potential cancer treatment using microwaves to target deep tumors
12.10.2016 | University of Texas at Arlington
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences