"Our study demonstrates that exercise when young may reduce the risk of fractures later in life, and the old exercise adage of 'use it or lose it' may not be entirely applicable to the skeleton," said the study's principal investigator, Stuart J. Warden, assistant professor and director of research in physical therapy at the Indiana University School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at IUPUI.
Researchers exercised the right forearms of 5-week-old female rats for a few minutes three times a week for seven weeks. The left forearms were not exercised. Bone quantity and structure of the rats' right and left forearms were assessed before and after exercise. Researchers did not exercise the rats for the next 92 weeks -- virtually their entire lifespan. At that point, their forearm bones were assessed again for bone quantity and structure, as well as strength.
All procedures were performed following approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Indiana University.
"We knew that exercise increases bone size and strength, and that the skeleton is most responsive to exercise during the crucial growing years around puberty when you reach adult size and strength," Warden said. "We also knew that bones are not as responsive to exercise when you are older."
What was not known, however, was if the skeletal benefits of exercising while young would last a lifetime, Warden said. In other words, he said, "can you use activity while young to offset the risk of osteoporosis, or the risk of bone fractures, later in life""
The study determined the answer to that question is, "Yes," Warden said.
The researchers found that the rats retained all of the skeletal exercise benefits they obtained while young even though they hadn't exercised for the rest of their lives, Warden said.
"We found the exercise resulted in a lifetime increase in bone size in the right forearms of the rats and the bones of the left forearms never caught up in size," he said.
How big a bone is determines how resistant it is to bending, or how strong it is, he said.
As humans age, bone loss occurs from the inside surface of the bone outward, Warden noted. Exercising while young lays down additional outside layers of bone. This results in a bigger bone than otherwise would be the case.
"With more bone layers on the outside, you have more bone to lose," Warden said.
By making the right forearm bones bigger during growth in their study, the researchers found these bones to be stronger, or more resistant to fracture, than left forearm bones despite exercise being ceased a lifetime ago.
The study demonstrates the importance of childhood exercise that stimulates the skeleton, like basketball or jumping, Warden said. Short periods of exercise several times a week are all that is needed to stimulate bone development in children, he added.
The message to older adults, however, remains the same. Even though the best time to gain lifetime bone health benefits is while people are young, exercising when people are older is essential to maintain bone mass and balance, as well as maintain aerobic fitness, all of which aid in reducing the risk of low-trauma (osteoporotic) fractures associated with aging.
Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia
21.10.2016 | Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg
New potential cancer treatment using microwaves to target deep tumors
12.10.2016 | University of Texas at Arlington
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences