The rate of a rise in PSA level, known as PSA velocity (PSAV), can be used to determine when prostate cancer spread may have already occurred, even in men with clinically localized disease. PSA, or prostate specific antigen, is measured by a blood test and used to determine if prostate cancer is present.
"We've known that men with a rapidly rising PSA are at greater risk of prostate cancer-related death and this study suggests that undetected distant metastasis present prior to radiation therapy may be the cause," explained Mark K. Buyyounouski, M.D., M.S., an attending physician in the radiation oncology department at Fox Chase and lead author of the study. The study looked at data collected between 1989 and 1999 for 671 men with clinically localized prostate cancer who received 3-D conformal radiation therapy.
Buyyounouski and others demonstrated that when the PSAV was greater than 2 ng/ml per year, the PSA was likely to continue rising at the same rate despite radiation therapy to the prostate. What's more, this group of men was found to have a greater likelihood of distant spread of prostate cancer and a greater risk of dying of the disease. This relationship was not seen for men with a slower PSAV of less than 2 ng/ml.
"This study suggests that an initially high PSAV often represents previously undetected metastatic disease exists at the time of diagnosis," said Buyyounouski. "This disease has the opportunity to progress if radiation therapy to the prostate and surrounding tissue is the only treatment," said Buyyounouski. "Therefore, it is recommended that the PSAV be used in addition to other high risk factors to determine if androgen deprivation therapy should be part of the treatment."
Androgen deprivation therapy, or hormone therapy, has been shown to improve survival when used in conjunction with radiation therapy for men at high risk of undetected spread of prostate cancer.
Buyyounouski concluded that requiring a PSAV of less than 2 ng/ml will be important for selecting patients who are most likely to benefit from radiation therapy alone. This has important implications for studies designed to compare various radiation regimens such as hypofractionation.
Karen Mallet | EurekAlert!
A promising target for kidney fibrosis
21.04.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital
Stem cell transplants: activating signal paths may protect from graft-versus-host disease
20.04.2017 | Technische Universität München
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...
Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.
A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.04.2017 | Health and Medicine
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy