Infection with H. pylori, which is known to cause ulcers, has also been associated with certain types of gastric cancer, but the strength of association varies with where the cancer is located in the stomach. Two types of gastric cancer commonly exist -- cardia, or cancer of the upper stomach joining the esophagus; and noncardia, or cancer of the lower stomach.
A group of researchers led by Farin Kamangar, M.D., Ph.D., of the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Md., selected 234 cardia and noncardia gastric cancer patients in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study and matched them to controls. They assessed all of the subjects for H. pylori infection by testing their blood for antibodies that indicate prior infection.
The authors found that the subjects infected with H. pylori had a higher risk of developing noncardia gastric cancer and a lower risk of developing cardia gastric cancer. They suggest that a decrease in H. pylori infections during the past century may be one reason that scientists have observed increasing rates of cardia and decreasing rates of noncardia gastric cancers in Western countries.
"The results of this study suggest that caution may be warranted against mass treatment to eradicate H. pylori ," the authors write.
In an accompanying editorial, Olof Nyren, M.D., Ph.D., of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, and William J. Blot, Ph.D., of the International Epidemiology Institute in Rockville, Md., write, "It seems prudent to include the putative protective effect of H. pylori against adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or cardia in the equation when drawing up prevention plans for gastric cancer."
Ariel Whitworth | EurekAlert!
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Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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