Researchers from the University of Washington's Autism Center will report today at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience on the first study that measures neural activity by using high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) to examine connections in the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that deals with higher cognitive processes.
Compared to normally developing individuals, the scientists found patterns of abnormal connectivity between brain regions in people with autism. These abnormalities showed both over and under connectivity between neurons in different parts of the cortex, according to Michael Murias, a postdoctoral researcher who headed the study.
"Our findings indicate adults with autism show differences in coordinated neural activity," said Murias, "which implies poor internal communication between the parts of the brain."
The UW researchers analyzed EEGs from 36 adults, ranging in age from 19 to 38. Half the adults had autism and all had IQs of at least 80. The EEGs, which measure the activity of hundreds of millions of brain cells, were collected with an array of 124 electrodes while the people were seated and relaxed with their eyes closed for two minutes.
The researchers found patterns of higher than normal neural connectivity in the left hemisphere, particularly in the temporal lobe of the persons with autism within two different frequencies of brain waves, the delta and theta bands. This part of the brain is associated with language, which is impaired in many people with autism.
A global pattern of decreased neural connectivity between the frontal lobes and the rest of autistic brain showed up on the alpha wave band. These findings support several other studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, both of which gauge brain activity by measuring blood flow. Post-mortem studies also suggest impairments in communication at the level of individual brain cells.
This over and under abundance of neural connections suggests inefficient and inconsistent communication inside the brains of people with autism and may explain some of the deficits shown by people who have the disorder.
The research has practical applications. Murias believes the abnormal patterns of brain activity are a potential biological marker of autism and may help to define the phenotype, or major characteristics, of autism. UW colleagues think EEG techniques can be used on young children to help in the early detection of autism, which is critical in providing interventions for the disorder. Other members of the research team are from the UW's Autism Center and include Geraldine Dawson, center director and a professor of psychology; Sara Webb, assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences; Jessica Greenson, research scientist; and Kristen Merkle, research study assistant. The National Institute of Mental Health's Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment and the Perry Research Fellowship Endowment funded the research.
Autism, a spectrum of developmental disorders, is the most common developmental disorder in the United States. It is estimated to affect one in every 166 children. Autism is characterized by an inability to communicate and interact with other people, and those afflicted typically have a restricted range of activities and interests.
Joel Schwarz | EurekAlert!
Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania
The strange double life of Dab2
10.01.2017 | University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
16.01.2017 | Information Technology
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering