Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Lung cancer: New techniques improve radiation therapy

11.10.2006
Lung cancer is the second most common malignant tumor in men after prostate carcinoma; in Germany alone, about 27,000 men develop the disease every year. But the incidence of lung tumors is increasing in women, too.

However, so far only 10 to 15 percent of lung cancer patients can be cured permanently. More than half of the patients with a small-cell lung carcinoma and about 65 percent of the patients with a non-small-cell lung carcinoma receive radiation treatment in the course of their illness.

The precision of a three-dimensional radiation planning is, however, limited by nature in the case of lung cancer: During breathing, the tumors shift by a few centimeters. As a consequence, the target area "moves" and can be missed if the radiation limits have been chosen too narrowly. Then the tumor cells will keep growing. But if the radiotherapist chooses the limits of the radiation field too generously, more side effects in the healthy lung are to be expected.

Image guided radiotherapy.

The image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) offers a solution to this dilemma, as experts report at the ESTRO congress in Leipzig. Novel linear accelerators that are equipped with a special x-ray device depict the tumor immediately before the radiation treatment. This allows capturing "moving" target areas. The device registers whether the planned situation matches the real situation. If this is not the case, the computer calculates the deviation, and the radiation table is shifted accordingly.

Respiration-Adapted Radiotherapy.

The respiration-adapted radiotherapy is also promising. With this method, the radiation is activated and deactivated with the breathing. In this way, the rays always hit the tumor at the same position. In some cases, the patients are also asked to hold their breath or to breathe in a certain rhythm, which requires training the patients accordingly at the beginning of the treatment. If the anatomical shifts can be purposefully controlled, they can also be purposefully compensated for. This method is also systematically studied at the moment. Here, physicians and physicists mainly calculate how the radiation volume can be decreased by this technique.

Stereotactic radiotherapy takes the place of the scalpel.

Stereotactic radiation, which requires a lot of effort and is so far mostly used for brain tumors, is now also tested by radiotherapists on small tumors of the body stem in especially radiosensitive environments. The exact three-dimensional coordinates of the target area are determined with computer tomograms and a special planning system. To enable a precise transmission of the planned radiation data, the body of the patient is fixated with a frame during the treatment. Under computer-tomographic guidance, markings in this frame are used to direct the radiation precisely at the tumor. In most cases, this is achieved by having the radiation hit the target location from many different directions and at precisely calculated angles.

A team led by Frank Zimmermann from the Klinikum rechts der Isar in Munich presents a study with 68 patients in Leipzig, whose small lung tumors could not be operated on for general health reasons. In 3 to 5 sessions, a high radiation dose was in each case delivered by stereotactic methods. In the so far three-year follow-up period, the tumor resumed its growth in only four patients (6 percent). No serious adverse effects were observed.

Barbara Ritzert | alfa
Further information:
http://www.estro.be

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht New malaria analysis method reveals disease severity in minutes
14.08.2017 | University of British Columbia

nachricht New type of blood cells work as indicators of autoimmunity
14.08.2017 | Instituto de Medicina Molecular

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Gold shines through properties of nano biosensors

17.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Greenland ice flow likely to speed up: New data assert glaciers move over sediment, which gets more slippery as it gets wetter

17.08.2017 | Earth Sciences

Mars 2020 mission to use smart methods to seek signs of past life

17.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>