The two previously known types of sleep apnea include obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. In obstructive sleep apnea, the more common form, the throat muscles relax and the airway is narrowed, momentarily cutting off breathing and resulting in noisy snoring. With central sleep apnea, the brain does not send proper signals to the muscles that control breathing. The newly discovered type, complex sleep apnea, is a combination of both obstructive and central sleep apneas.
Patients with complex sleep apnea at first appear to have obstructive sleep apnea and stop breathing 20 to 30 times per hour each night. But unlike typical obstructive sleep apnea patients, their breathing problem is not completely alleviated by a CPAP (continuous airway pressure) machine, which functions like a pneumatic splint to open a patient's airway. Instead, once the CPAP is applied to complex sleep apnea patients, the obstruction seems to dissipate, but still they do not breathe properly. Symptoms of central sleep apnea then appear and fragmented sleep results, due to frequent pauses in breathing.
"All of us in our sleep lab have observed for years that there are patients who appear to have obstructive sleep apnea, but the CPAP doesn't make them all that much better -- they still have moderate to severe sleep apnea even with our best treatment and subjectively don't feel they're doing very well," says Timothy Morgenthaler, M.D., Mayo Clinic sleep medicine specialist, pulmonologist and lead study investigator. "When they put on a CPAP machine, they start to look like central sleep apnea syndrome patients. This phenomenon has been observed for years, but this study is the first attempt to categorize these people."
The study involved a retrospective review of 223 patients consecutively referred to the Mayo Clinic Sleep Disorders Center over one month, plus 20 consecutive patients diagnosed with central sleep apnea. The investigators found that complex sleep apnea comprised 15 percent of all sleep apnea patients, while 84 percent had obstructive sleep apnea and 0.4 percent had central sleep apnea. They also discovered that males have a higher tendency to have complex sleep apnea. Dr. Morgenthaler says this may be due to less stable respiratory control in males than females. The complex sleep apnea patients had sleep and cardiovascular histories similar to the obstructive sleep apnea patients. The complex sleep apnea patients also had fewer complaints about waking up after initially falling asleep than those with central sleep apnea (32 percent vs. 79 percent). The investigators found that complex sleep apnea could be diagnosed based on patients' sleep patterns defined at their initial diagnostic exams plus lack of response to CPAP.
According to Dr. Morgenthaler, no known factors influence risk for complex sleep apnea. An effective treatment has not been identified, but research continues to test breathing assistance machines to alleviate this condition's symptoms.
Lisa Lucier | EurekAlert!
Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania
The strange double life of Dab2
10.01.2017 | University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
16.01.2017 | Information Technology
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering