Genome exposes buried bugs
Knowing the human genetic sequence helps unearth invaders.
Human DNA analysis catches disease-causing culprits.
Human DNA is a new device for disease detectives. The database of human genetics can expose misfit microbe genes in diseased tissues, a US team have found.
Matthew Meyerson, of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, and his colleagues compared 7,000 DNA sequences extracted from cervical cancer cells to the vast database of human genes - and pulled out two misfits. Both were from a virus known to cause the cancer1.
"I was delighted," says Meyerson apropos his find. He hopes to identify infectious bugs or viruses that are implicated in disease using the technique.
"Its promising," agrees pathologist Patrick Moore of Columbia University in New York. Infection is thought to trigger the onset of some cancers, as well as autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, but the identity of the bacteria or viruses at work remain unknown. A new method "is critically needed", claims Meyerson.
Tracking down a microbes few incriminating genes amongst the many thousand human ones "is a hell of a hard thing to do", says Moore. He likens it to searching through two versions of the Oxford English Dictionary for a single missing word.
Researchers pull off the feat by creating libraries of active genes from healthy and diseased human tissues; the latter incorporate those of resident pathogens. Previously, researchers compared the two by hand - a time-consuming process.
The findings may prompt many to turn to computers for their screening studies, predicts Moore. High-throughput techniques can now quickly determine the DNA make-up of genes in a library; comparing them to sequences in the human-genome database takes only an hour on a desktop computer. Meyersons group plans to create and sequence libraries from many diseased tissues.
But some microbes may be hard to pin down, warns Moore. Many bacteria and viruses naturally inhabit the body and it may be difficult to sift these from those that cause disease.
- Weber, G. et al. Identification of foreign gene sequences by transcript filtering against the human genome. Nature Genetics, DOI 10.1038/hg818, (2002).
HELEN PEARSON | © Nature News Service
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...
Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters
Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...