Scientists at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig, however, have studied on mice what happens when the normal interaction between these cells is disrupted: severe intestinal inflammation, whose symptoms closely resemble human autoimmune diseases, such as Morbus Crohn or Colitis ulcerosa.
"The intestinal surfaces form a border between the insides of the human body and the outside world, and they present our immune system with a monumental task," explains Dr. Astrid Westendorf, a researcher at the Helmholtz center. "Bacteria and other disease-causing pathogens that attempt to penetrate the body must be vehemently repelled at this point," she says. "On the other hand, nutrients, as well as the body's own cells and molecules, must not induce an immune reaction. Otherwise, a severe inflammation could result which might, in the long term, cause serious damage, and in some cases, even destroy the intestinal mucosa."
This is exactly what happens with so-called Villin HA-mice, which were studied by Westendorf and her colleagues. "These animals belong to a genetically altered strain that possess a molecule known as hemagglutinin, or HA, on the cells of their intestinal mucosa," she says. Westendorf injected these animals with immune cells from the blood of other mice strains that specifically produced immune cells targeting HA. The result: the immune cells attacked the intestinal surface and induced dramatic symptoms similar to those of patients with chronic intestinal inflammation.
A Surprising Tolerance
Westendorf. They keep the defense cells in check, most of which are the CD4+ or CD8+ type T cells, since these would otherwise attack the always present components of their own intestinal surface.
"The constant interaction between aggressive T cells and inhibiting TREG keeps the immunological balance of our intestinal mucosa intact," explains Prof. Dr. Jan Buer, work group leader at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research. "Many chronic, inflammatory intestinal ailments occur because this balance no longer functions," he says. Buer hopes that a better understanding of the processes involved could open up opportunities to selectively turn immune system responses up or down. "That," he says, "could lead to possible therapies for autoimmune diseases, like Morbus Crohn, but also tumors and infections in which the immune reaction needs to be selectively activated."
Manfred Braun | alfa
NIH scientists describe potential antibody treatment for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae
14.03.2018 | NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Researchers identify key step in viral replication
13.03.2018 | University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences
Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...
On 15 March, the AWI research aeroplane Polar 5 will depart for Greenland. Concentrating on the furthest northeast region of the island, an international team...
The world’s second-largest ice shelf was the destination for a Polarstern expedition that ended in Punta Arenas, Chile on 14th March 2018. Oceanographers from...
At the 2018 ILA Berlin Air Show from April 25–29, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is showcasing extreme high-speed Laser Material Deposition (EHLA): A video documents how for metal components that are highly loaded, EHLA has already proved itself as an alternative to hard chrome plating, which is now allowed only under special conditions.
When the EU restricted the use of hexavalent chromium compounds to special applications requiring authorization, the move prompted a rethink in the surface...
At the ILA Berlin, hall 4, booth 202, Fraunhofer FHR will present two radar sensors for navigation support of drones. The sensors are valuable components in the implementation of autonomous flying drones: they function as obstacle detectors to prevent collisions. Radar sensors also operate reliably in restricted visibility, e.g. in foggy or dusty conditions. Due to their ability to measure distances with high precision, the radar sensors can also be used as altimeters when other sources of information such as barometers or GPS are not available or cannot operate optimally.
Drones play an increasingly important role in the area of logistics and services. Well-known logistic companies place great hope in these compact, aerial...
16.03.2018 | Event News
13.03.2018 | Event News
08.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Earth Sciences
16.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
16.03.2018 | Life Sciences