Among infectious diseases, diarrhoea ranks as the third leading cause of both mortality and morbidity (after respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS), placing it above tuberculosis and malaria. Many of the micro-organisms that cause diarrhoea are caused by contaminated drinking water.
In high income communities, the problem is reduced by delivering clean water to homes, but this demands considerable expenditure on infrastructure that is both difficult and costly to maintain. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean water1; many more rely on water supplies that are unsafe. The UN Millennium Development Goals seek to reduce by half the portion of the population without access to safe drinking water by 2015.
The Cochrane Systematic Review, which was completed by researchers from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, shows that interventions to improve the microbiological quality of water are effective in preventing diarrhoea. However, treating water in the home (chlorination, filtration, solar disinfection, combined flocculation/disinfection and improved storage) is considerably more effective in preventing diarrhoea than traditional interventions at the water source or point-of-distribution (wells, boreholes and communal stand posts).
“While the provision of safe piped-in water is an important long-term goal, our results demonstrate that the health gains associated with safe drinking water can be achieved by providing people with simple, affordable technologies to treat their water at home,” says lead Review Author Thomas Clasen, a Lecturer in Household Water Management at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. “Our challenge now is to show that these interventions can be disseminated at scale on a sustainable basis”.
Julia Lampam | alfa
Millions through license revenues
27.04.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences