Among infectious diseases, diarrhoea ranks as the third leading cause of both mortality and morbidity (after respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS), placing it above tuberculosis and malaria. Many of the micro-organisms that cause diarrhoea are caused by contaminated drinking water.
In high income communities, the problem is reduced by delivering clean water to homes, but this demands considerable expenditure on infrastructure that is both difficult and costly to maintain. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean water1; many more rely on water supplies that are unsafe. The UN Millennium Development Goals seek to reduce by half the portion of the population without access to safe drinking water by 2015.
The Cochrane Systematic Review, which was completed by researchers from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, shows that interventions to improve the microbiological quality of water are effective in preventing diarrhoea. However, treating water in the home (chlorination, filtration, solar disinfection, combined flocculation/disinfection and improved storage) is considerably more effective in preventing diarrhoea than traditional interventions at the water source or point-of-distribution (wells, boreholes and communal stand posts).
“While the provision of safe piped-in water is an important long-term goal, our results demonstrate that the health gains associated with safe drinking water can be achieved by providing people with simple, affordable technologies to treat their water at home,” says lead Review Author Thomas Clasen, a Lecturer in Household Water Management at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. “Our challenge now is to show that these interventions can be disseminated at scale on a sustainable basis”.
Julia Lampam | alfa
NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology
07.12.2016 | Nanyang Technological University
How to turn white fat brown
07.12.2016 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine
07.12.2016 | Life Sciences
07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine