Vaccines can drive the evolution of virulent disease.
Vaccinations may increase death toll.
Inadequate vaccines can the encourage emergence of nastier bugs, placing the unprotected at risk, a new mathematical model shows. The effect could undermine future vaccination programmes.
Many vaccines save people from dying of a disease, but do not stop them carrying and transmitting it. Over a few decades this may cause more virulent strains to evolve, predict Andrew Read and his colleagues of the University of Edinburgh, UK1.
Don’t encourage them
Vaccines that encourage evolution include those that slow a disease-causing organism’s growth or target its harmful toxin. These types are being pursued to fight diseases such as anthrax and malaria. The possibility that these might save individuals but harm populations "has not been considered before", says Ebert, and should be a factor in public-health policy.
Most existing vaccines, such as those for smallpox, polio and measles, are very effective as they use a different strategy. They stimulate a natural immune reaction which either kills off subsequent infections or blocks pathogen reproduction and transmission altogether. Read does not advocate halting such programmes. New vaccines should similarly aim to prevent pathogens getting a toehold, says Bangham; many in the pipeline do not.
Several different vaccines are being developed to fight malaria: results of clinical trials for one that interrupts the life cycle of microorganism Plasmodium falciparum were announced last week2. ’Multivalent vaccines’ that target several different parts of a pathogen or life cycle at once are the better choice, Read suggests.
HELEN PEARSON | © Nature News Service
Inflammation Triggers Unsustainable Immune Response to Chronic Viral Infection
24.10.2016 | Universität Basel
Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia
21.10.2016 | Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg
Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.
This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...
Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion
Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
25.10.2016 | Earth Sciences
25.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
25.10.2016 | Process Engineering