Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

2nd IFOM-IEO Campus Meeting on Cancer - New therapeutic anti-cancer strategies: shortening telomeres

08.05.2006


Without the enzyme that “regenerates” telomeres (the ends of DNA), stem cells lose functionality and the organism rapidly ages, while it acquires cancer resistance. The finding, which has significant implications in cancer and aging research, was presented yesterday at the 2nd IFOM-IEO Campus Meeting on Cancer (May 5th – 8th, IFOM-IEO Campus, Milan, Italy) by Marìa A. Blasco, of the Spanish National Cancer Center (CNIO) in Madrid (Spain).



Our cells’ DNA has a sort of “tail”: the telomeres. Every time our cells divide, telomeres get shorter and shorter. This progressive telomere shortening is compensated by the action of a specific enzyme, called “telomerase”, which is able to regenerate the tails; but in our cells there is not enough telomerase to keep telomeres at a constant length during our lifetime. And when telomeres get too short, cells stop replicating. Scientists have long hypothesized (and partially proved, with several experiments) that telomere shortening is correlated, on the one hand, to the general aging of the body (when many cells in a tissue stop replicating, the tissue becomes unable to regenerate itself and gets “old”) and, on the other hand, to cancer (tumour cells replicate much more than normal cells, therefore they need some mechanism to counteract natural telomere shortening).

To make the picture even more complicated, stem cells (the other big “stars” of modern biology research) might be the only cells that are able to produce the enzyme telomerase. Intuitively this makes sense, since stem cells are the “mother cells” of all cells, and they are necessary to the body to regenerate tissues and organs during lifetime. But, what is the role of telomerase in stem cells? And what could happen if the enzyme is absent? To answer these questions, Blasco and colleagues set up a series of experiments in mice. And they found that the lack of telomerase causes a severe defect in the fundamental functions of stem cells. “In particular – Blasco said – we have been looking at skin stem cells. And we observed that, in genetically modified mice that did not express telomerase, stem cells lost their functionality and became unable to regenerate the damaged epithelial tissue. On the whole, these mice aged more rapidly than normal mice. But, there was a very interesting side effect: without telomerase, mice showed a marked cancer resistance.” Further experiments on telomeres structure showed that every time the shortening process is altered, the result is either “early aging and cancer resistance” (if shortening is boosted), or “aging inhibition and more cancer occurrence” (if shortening is reduced).


“In our lab – Blasco added – we do basic research, but our results provide fundamental knowledge to those who work on the development of new therapeutic tools. In this very moment, preclinical trials are being carried out on drugs that are able to boost the action of telomerase. The potential anti-aging effect of these drugs might prove useful in the treatment of diseases such as AIDS, where tissues age rapidly. In tumours, it is necessary to implement the opposite strategy: there are drugs, now in clinical trials, that inhibit telomerase action and increase telomeres shortening.” In the light of the new finding, such therapy might prove to be effective against cancer stem cells, that today are considered the most “malignant” culprit of cancer.

Francesca Noceti | alfa
Further information:
http://www.ifom-ieo-campus.it
http://www.semm.it/meeting/cancer06/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht On track to heal leukaemia
18.01.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern

nachricht Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>