Diabetes epidemic could erase reductions in deaths & hospitalizations due to heart disease
Einstein researchers report findings in March issue of Diabetes
Researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have documented a dramatic upsurge in diabetes-related deaths and illnesses in New York City--including a sharp increase in diabetic patients hospitalized with heart attacks. They warn that this upsurge in diabetic complications may end the long-term trend of progressively fewer heart attacks and heart-attack deaths in the U.S.
"Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S., and the leading cause of death among people with diabetes is coronary heart disease," notes Dr. Michael Alderman, professor of epidemiology and population health at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and senior author of the paper, published in the February issue of Diabetes. "We expected to see an increase in hospitalizations due to heart attacks among diabetics, but we were surprised by the magnitude of the increase and the sharply rising trend indicated by these findings.
"The incidence of diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate in this country over the past decade," adds Dr. Alderman. "Diabetes itself is an important cause of death. But in addition, people with diabetes are likely to succumb to heart disease and heart attacks. So we wanted to determine how the upsurge in diabetes is affecting the number of hospitalizations and deaths in New York, a city with a large and diverse population."
The Einstein researchers looked at New York City Department of Health mortality records for two three-year periods--1989 through 1991 and 1999 through 2001. This information included the underlying cause of death listed on each individuals death certificate. The data on hospitalizations during the same periods were provided by the New York State Department of Health. The analyses were limited to people 35 years and older.
During the decade between these two three-year time spans, mortality rates due to stroke, cancer and all other diseases declined--with the notable exception of diabetes. The mortality rate due to diabetes over that period increased by 61 percent.
As for hospitalizations over this time, the percentage of all heart attacks among people with diabetes increased from 21 percent to 36 percent--with the total number of diabetics suffering heart attacks more than doubling, from 2,951 to 6,048. The result: The total number of heart attacks in New York City failed to decline from 1989-1991 to 1999-2001 and instead stayed the same. And while days spent in hospital due to heart attack fell overall in New York City, for diabetics they increased by a striking 51 percent.
"Over the past 30 years, the U.S. has achieved dramatic reductions in illnesses and deaths from coronary heart disease," says Dr. Jing Fang, the studys lead author, who is now at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. "But if this upsurge in diabetes-associated deaths and illnesses continues, it may put an end to the progress weve made in combating illness and death from coronary heart disease."
Karen Gardner | EurekAlert!
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
New technique promises tunable laser devices
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...