Do artificial sweeteners influence long-term bodyweight control?
It is widely believed by the public that replacing sugars with artificial sweeteners will help reduce calorie (energy) intake and aid weight loss. As a result sales of foods and drinks sweetened with artificially sweeteners are at an all time high, as are rates of overweight and obesity. However, while appropriate use of artificial sweeteners may help control energy intake and bodyweight in the short-term, little is known about the long-term impact of artificial sweetener consumption on energy intake and body weight.
A lower intake of energy relative to energy expenditure promotes weight loss. Therefore, it would make sense that substituting foods and drinks containing artificial sweeteners for those with sugar, weight loss would follow. However, the science is not as straight forward as it may seem: the body is capable of sensing and adapting to a reduced energy intake, and as a result people may compensate for this by eating more later.
Professor David Benton, of the University of Wales, Swansea, conducted a review of the scientific evidence looking at the effect of artificial sweeteners in weight control and energy intake. Publishing his findings in Nutrition Research Reviews*, Professor Benton concluded that at present the scientific evidence suggests there is a lack of convincing evidence to draw firm conclusions on the role of artificial sweeteners on long-term energy intake and bodyweight regulation. Current evidence suggests that, although artificial sweeteners may be helpful in the short-term, there is little long-term benefit of in people of normal, body weight.
Professor Benton suggests this is because “consumption of artificial sweeteners or low-energy foods tends to be followed by an increase in energy intake to make up for the lost energy in people of a normal bodyweight”. The evidence as its stands, suggests that men, rather than women, and children rather, than adults, are better at compensating. However, people who exercise dietary restraint (i.e. watch what they eat carefully)may benefit from artificial sweeteners as they tend not to compensate for energy intake.
Professor Benton suggests that following a low-fat diet is best for weight loss. “Energy-dense diets tend to be associated with obesity, and energy-dense foods tend to be high in fat and have a low water content”. High-carbohydrate diets, however, tend to be low in fat. He adds “a number of studies suggest that the use of artificial sweeteners leads to increased consumption of fat, which in theory could lead to weight gain in unrestrained eaters” as gram for gram fat provides more than twice the calories of sugar. There are a number of reasons why this may be, including that fact that carbohydrates, when consumed as solids, promote satiety (feelings of fullness) more than fat. Therefore, people who eat high fat meals may end up eating more energy than people who eat high carbohydrate meals.
It is clear that artificial sweeteners are not a magic solution to all bodyweight problems but may be helpful to some people as part of an overall diet and lifestyle conducive to slimming or weight control.
Hannah Theobald | alfa
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...