Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Indoor pollution from cooking on wood stoves affects women in developing countries

16.02.2006


Women in developing countries who cook over a wood stove for years and inhale the smoke can develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and experience the same clinical characteristics, diminished quality of life and increased mortality rates as tobacco smokers.



These findings from a Mexican study appear in the second issue for February 2006 of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, published by the American Thoracic Society.

Over a seven-year period, Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas, M.D., and six associates from the COPD Clinic at the National Institutes of Respiratory Diseases in Mexico City, followed up on clinical, functional, health-related quality of life and survival characteristics of 481 COPD patients. Of this group, 345 persons (76 percent of whom were male) had COPD associated with tobacco smoke and 186 individuals (86 percent female) developed the disease as a result of inhaling wood smoke.


Although cigarette smoking is a greater risk factor for COPD in developed countries, indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is responsible for more than 1.6 million annual deaths and 2.7 percent of the global burden of COPD in developing countries, according to the World Health Organization.

COPD results from persistent obstruction of the airways associated with either severe emphysema or chronic bronchitis. In emphysema, the tiny air sacs of the lung (alveoli) become enlarged and their walls are destroyed. In chronic bronchitis, the bronchial glands enlarge, causing a chronic cough and excess mucus. Ten to 15 percent of all smokers develop COPD as a result of irritants in tobacco that cause inflammation of the alveoli.

"Biomass (wood) smoke is composed of a relatively equal mixture of coarse and ultrafine particles and can penetrate deeply into the lung, producing a variety of morphologic and biochemical changes," said Dr. Ramírez-Venegas.

According to the authors, the patients in the wood smoke group were older, shorter and had a greater body mass than those in the tobacco smoke group.

The cumulative exposure for the wood smoke COPD patients was expressed in hour-years, the number of hours of cooking with wood stoves multiplied by the average number of hours spent daily in the kitchen. The average cumulative exposure was 214 hour-years for the wood smoke group and 56 pack years for the tobacco smokers.

"In our study, the degree of airflow limitation was worse in tobacco smokers than in subjects exposed to wood smoke," said Dr. Ramírez-Venegas. "Whether biomass exposure affects lung growth and, consequently, function in adulthood and elderly life is unclear. However, biomass smoke exposure starts early in life because women cook using wood stoves in the same room where children sleep, play and eat, increasing the risk of respiratory infections and possible reduction in lung growth. Likewise, because the girls spend more time with their mothers and help with the domestic work at a very early age, these girls as women may be more susceptible to pulmonary infection, because they may have a very long time response to biomass, lasting at least 40 to 50 years. Women stop the exposure when they leave the rural community and move to live in urban areas, such as Mexico City."

During a follow-up period of almost 7 years, 124 (26 percent) of the total patient group died. Twenty-five patients (20 percent) died as a result of biomass smoke exposure and 99 suffered from fatal COPD associated with tobacco smoke. Sixty percent of the deaths in the tobacco smoke cohort came from respiratory failure, while 48 percent of the wood smoke patients died from the same problem.

Suzy Martin | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.thoracic.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Mass. General team generates therapeutic nitric oxide from air with an electric spark
07.07.2015 | Massachusetts General Hospital

nachricht UNC researchers find 2 biomarkers linked to severe heart disease
07.07.2015 | University of North Carolina Health Care

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Surfing a wake of light

Researchers observe and control light wakes for the first time

When a duck paddles across a pond or a supersonic plane flies through the sky, it leaves a wake in its path. Wakes occur whenever something is traveling...

Im Focus: Light-induced Magnetic Waves in Materials Engineered at the Atomic Scale

Researchers explore ultrafast control of magnetism across interfaces: A new study discovers how the sudden excitation of lattice vibrations in a crystal can trigger a change of the magnetic properties of an atomically-thin layer that lies on its surface.

A research team, led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter at CFEL in Hamburg, the University of Oxford, and the...

Im Focus: Viaducts with wind turbines, the new renewable energy source

Wind turbines could be installed under some of the biggest bridges on the road network to produce electricity. So it is confirmed by calculations carried out by a European researchers team, that have taken a viaduct in the Canary Islands as a reference. This concept could be applied in heavily built-up territories or natural areas with new constructions limitations.

The Juncal Viaduct, in Gran Canaria, has served as a reference for Spanish and British researchers to verify that the wind blowing between the pillars on this...

Im Focus: X-rays and electrons join forces to map catalytic reactions in real-time

New technique combines electron microscopy and synchrotron X-rays to track chemical reactions under real operating conditions

A new technique pioneered at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory reveals atomic-scale changes during catalytic reactions in real...

Im Focus: Iron: A biological element?

Think of an object made of iron: An I-beam, a car frame, a nail. Now imagine that half of the iron in that object owes its existence to bacteria living two and a half billion years ago.

Think of an object made of iron: An I-beam, a car frame, a nail. Now imagine that half of the iron in that object owes its existence to bacteria living two and...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

World Conference on Regenerative Medicine in Leipzig: Last chance to submit abstracts until 2 July

25.06.2015 | Event News

World Conference on Regenerative Medicine: Abstract Submission has been extended to 24 June

16.06.2015 | Event News

MUSE hosting Europe’s largest science communication conference

11.06.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Down to the quantum dot

07.07.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

Tundra study uncovers impact of climate warming in the Arctic

07.07.2015 | Earth Sciences

Transition from 3 to 2 dimensions increases conduction, MIPT scientists discover

07.07.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>