Radiologic signs more than double sensitivity of MRIs
Radiologists can make a more accurate preoperative diagnosis of damage to knee cartilage by using four radiologic signs, a recent study found. Using the four signs to identify the extent and type of damage to knee cartilage makes interpreting MRIs with higher degrees of accuracy easier for any radiologist, regardless of their level of expertise.
During the course of this study, reviewers correctly identified 17 (89%) of 19 radial meniscal tears using the four radiologic signs: the truncated triangle, cleft, marching cleft, and the ghost meniscus. Each of these signs describes a unique type of tear and damage to the cartilage of the knee. These types of tears are categorized based upon the easily recognizable patterns which show up on MRIs.
A meniscal tear exposes the underlying cartilage of the knee and can lead to accelerated wear and arthritis from the decreased structural integrity of the knee joint. Fortunately some types of meniscal tears can be repaired. However, "radial tears are significant in that they frequently are irreparable, and even a relatively small tear can lead to advanced wear," said Keith Harper, MD, lead author of the study.
"It is advantageous to preoperatively identify potentially non-repairable meniscal tears, such as radial tears," said Dr. Harper. "When possible and practical, repairing the damaged cartilage is significantly preferred to its removal." Since treatment of meniscal tears is dependent on their configuration, size, and location, the characterization of the tear can help the surgeon and patient decide what type of surgery is necessary as well as what type of rehabilitation will be needed.
"Radiologists can look for and easily recognize the four radiologic signs in order to prospectively identify radial tears. Using these four radiologic signs increased the prospective characterization and sensitivity for the detection of radial tears from 37% to 89%," said Dr. Harper.
"We feel that by using the four signs, most radiologists who interpret knee MRIs should have a high degree of success of prospectively identifying radial meniscal tears," said Dr. Harper. "Since using the four signs is fairly easy, similar degrees of accuracy can be achieved by radiologists who may not be experts in the field of musculoskeletal radiology."
"Actually, we were surprised to find in the study that the knowledge of specific and more objective signs for radial tears was a great help for even musculoskeletal radiologists with extensive experience interpreting knee MRIs," said Dr. Harper.
Philip Knowles | EurekAlert!
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
New technique promises tunable laser devices
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...