A decreased ability to repair chromosomal damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation in test tubes may be associated with an increased risk of the common skin cancers basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but not of melanoma, according to a study in the December 21 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Exposure to UV radiation from sunlight is a risk factor for the two most common skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and for the less common and potentially lethal skin cancer cutaneous malignant melanoma. UV-B radiation can cause strands of DNA to break in sun-exposed skin or skin cells. People with a condition called xeroderma pigmentosum are at a very high risk of sunlight-induced skin cancer because their cells are unable to repair these kinds of DNA and chromosomal damage. However, scientists did not know if the frequency of UV-B induced chromatid breaks, an indirect estimate of DNA repair capacity, is a risk factor for skin cancer in the general population.
Li-E Wang, M.D., and Qingyi Wei, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues set out to answer this question by studying 469 patients with both melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancers and 329 cancer-free patients. They took blood samples from all of the patients and then measured the number of chromatid breaks in the patients cells 24 hours after the blood samples were exposed to UV-B radiation.
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Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
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