The reliability of a prostate cancer-screening test may be compromised by lifestyle and demographic factors, according to a new study. Published in the January 15, 2006 issue of CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study reveals the (rate of) change in concentration of prostate specific antigen (PSA) over time--a calculation called PSA velocity--can be significantly affected by age, race, and diet, leading to falsely lower or elevated values and possible misinterpretation by doctors. Single determinations of PSA concentration, the most common use of the PSA screening test, were minimally but significantly affected by age and body mass index (BMI).
Studies have shown a decrease in prostate cancer mortality since 1992 and some researchers attribute a portion of that fall to the widespread adoption of the PSA test. But some experts say that PSA concentration alone causes too many false positives and leads to many unnecessary tests, such as biopsies and transrectal ultrasounds. Investigators continue to refine the test, including developing calculations such as PSA velocity, PSA density, and age-specific PSA, or other tests such as percent free PSA. However, there is poor understanding of the effect of other factors, such as diet, race, and weight on PSA and its related measurements.
Alan R. Kristal, Dr.P.H. of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle and colleagues reviewed PSA and PSA velocity data from 3,341 cancer-free men to determine relationships between PSA tests and demographic and lifestyle factors.
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Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
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