The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is a widely debated topic. It has been shown that young, lean, insulin-resistant offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes have reduced mitochondrial function. But the precise role of this decreased function in relation to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes was not clear.
In a paper appearing online on November 10 in advance of print publication of the December issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Gerald Shulman and colleagues from Yale University take muscle biopsies from these offspring and show that they have reduced mitochondrial content as assessed by electron microscopy. The subjects also have lower insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake and increased lipid content in muscle cells. However in contrast to two recent studies, the authors did not find any alterations in PGC-1a or PGC-1b or other downstream regulators of mitochondrial gene expression.
These results provide new insights into the earliest defects that may be responsible for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, reduced mitochondrial content could result in reduced mitochondrial function, which predisposes the offspring of type, 2 diabetic parents to muscle cell lipid accumulation, which then leads to defective insulin signaling and action.
Stacie Bloom | EurekAlert!
A promising target for kidney fibrosis
21.04.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital
Stem cell transplants: activating signal paths may protect from graft-versus-host disease
20.04.2017 | Technische Universität München
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...
Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.
A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.04.2017 | Health and Medicine
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy