Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The diagnosis of tumours in children

28.06.2005


Determining if there exist genetic alterations that can be associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of neuroblastic tumours, responsible for 15% of child deaths due to cancer, was the aim of the Paula Lázcoz Ripoll’s PhD thesis which she recently defended at the Public University of Navarra. The work was entitled: Molecular diagnosis of neuroblastic tumours: genetic profile and analysis of tumour suppressor genes.



Genetic alterations

Neuroblastic tumours are malignant extracraneal tumours most frequent in infancy: they affect 1 in every 8,000 children. Amongst these tumours are ganglioneuromas, ganglioneuroblastomas and neuroblastomas, the latter being the most malignant. According to the authoress of the thesis, in some cases, treatment is not required and they revert to their original state. But there are other neuroblastomas that are more aggressive and require an excision of the tumour and the subsequent treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, although with scant percentage of success.


In this context, Ms Paula Lazcoz put forward as the objective of her PhD an attempt, from a molecular pathology perspective, at the diagnosis and prognosis of neuroblastic tumours. To this end, 45 neuroblastic tumours were analysed and 12 cellular lines of neuroblastoma, i.e. cells extracted from this type of tumour and maintained in culture.

Also, eight tumour suppressor genes that appear altered in numerous types of cancer were studied. In concrete, the genes involved are PTEN, DMBT1, MGMT, FGFR2, MXI1, RASSF1A, NORE1A, BLU and CASP8. According to Paula Lazcoz, in normal conditions, the tumour suppressor genes avoid a normal cell transforming into a tumorous cell and thus giving rise to a tumour, and so the alteration of any of these genes could be involved in the genesis of a tumour.

In this way, the corresponding DNA was obtained from the tumours and the indicated cellular lines, in order to subsequently determine the frequency of homozygotic delections, loss of heterozygosity, instability of microsatellites, hypermethylation of the promoter and the level of genetic expression of the previously mentioned genes, all of these being mechanisms that can inactivate the tumour suppressor genes and, thus, favour the formation of the tumour. The techniques used in order to carry out this analysis were differential PCR, standard PCR, MSP and RT-PCR. The profile of gains and losses of genetic material at a global genome level was also studied by means of CGH.

Once the genetic alterations are determined, it was observed that no statistically significant relationship existed between the genetic alterations found and the clinical-pathological data of the tumours (age, sex, tumour location, etc). According to the authoress, these results could be due to the fact that the sample, given its size, was not very representative thus begging the question that, with a wider sample, more significant data would be obtained.

Nevertheless, a statistically significant relationship was in fact observed (p<0.05) between the hypermethylation of the RASSF1A and CASP8 genes, which might suggest the need to alter simultaneously two routes of carcinogenetic control in order to obtain a neuroblastic tumour.

Garazi Andonegi | alfa
Further information:
http://www.elhuyar.com
http://www.basqueresearch.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Light beam replaces blood test during heart surgery
28.02.2017 | University of Central Florida

nachricht Cells adapt ultra-rapidly to zero gravity
28.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Existence of a new quasiparticle demonstrated

28.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Sustainable ceramics without a kiln

28.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Biofuel produced by microalgae

28.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>