African HIV Subtypes Identified in Minnesota Population
Public health researchers in Minnesota recently identified 83 persons infected with subtypes of HIV-1 that are not common in the United States, according to a report published in the June 15 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online.
Viral subtype identification may be important because subtypes may differ in terms of the efficacy of potential vaccines, diagnostic testing for HIV infection, and monitoring of the health of HIV-infected patients. The report, by Tracy L. Sides, MPH, and colleagues of the Minnesota Department of Health and the HIV Program at Hennepin County Medical Center, emphasizes the need for better surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes to determine their prevalence.
For the first two decades of the AIDS epidemic in the United States, HIV-1 subtype B has been the predominant isolate throughout the country. In recent years, non-B HIV-1 subtypes have been spreading in parts of Europe. As Sides and colleagues explained, however, the prevalence of subtype B and other subtypes in the United States is not known, because subtype testing is not conducted with routine HIV/AIDS surveillance.
In 2003, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted HIV-1 subtyping with routine surveillance to describe and monitor non-B-subtype HIV-1 isolates. In Minnesota, African-born persons make up less than one percent of the population, but in 2002 accounted for 21 percent of the states new cases of HIV infection. Accordingly, Sides and colleagues conducted targeted surveillance of 98 African-born HIV-infected patients to determine the existence and variety of HIV-1 subtypes. They also conducted surveillance on 28 non-African patients to monitor the introduction of non-B subtypes into Minnesota.
All of those infected with non-B subtypes were African immigrants attending health clinics in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Of the 98 African-born HIV-1-infected patients, 87 were successfully subtyped and 95 percent of these were infected with non-B subtypes. Seven different subtypes were identified, all consistent with strains endemic to the patients regions of birth. Of the non-African HIV-1-infected patients, 25 were successfully subtyped and all were infected with subtype B.
The researchers believe that their results underestimate the prevalence of non-B subtypes in Minnesota because recent immigrants are less likely than assimilated immigrants to have access to the American health care system. Since their estimates are based solely on patients from health care facilities, they probably missed recent immigrants with HIV infection.
In an accompanying editorial, Diane Bennett, MD, MPH, of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explained that this study is important because few such investigations of U.S. subtype prevalence have been conducted, and because the results have national public health implications. "The findings of a high prevalence of non-B subtypes in a state where African-born individuals make up less than one percent of the population," she said, "suggest that it may be time to consider implementing HIV subtype surveillance in states with larger immigrant populations and throughout the United States."
Steve Baragona | EurekAlert!
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...