Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

People with diabetes more sensitive to cardiovascular effects from air pollution

01.06.2005


People with diabetes may be at higher risk for cardiovascular problems when air pollution levels are higher, according to a new study of Boston-area residents. The ability of the blood vessels to control blood flow was impaired in adults with diabetes on days with elevated levels of particles from traffic and coal-burning power plants. The researchers evaluated several kinds of fine particles found in urban air pollution. These included sulfate particles, which come mainly from coal-burning power plants, as well as ultra-fine particles and black carbon soot, which are generated primarily by diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicles.

"Our strongest finding was that blood vessel reactivity was impaired in people with diabetes on days when concentrations of sulfate particles and black carbon were higher," said Marie O’Neill, Ph.D., an epidemiologist now with the Robert Wood Johnson Health & Society Scholars program at University of Michigan and lead author on the study. "Impaired vascular reactivity has been associated with an increased risk of heart attack, stroke and other heart problems."

"Previous studies have shown that when air pollution levels are higher, people with diabetes have higher rates of hospitalization and death related to cardiovascular problems," said NIEHS Director David Schwartz, M.D. "These changes in blood vessel reactivity may help explain this phenomenon."



The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, one of the National Institutes of Health, provided funding to O’Neill and other researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health for the study. Other collaborators were from the Joslin Diabetes Center and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. The findings are published in the June 2005 issue of the journal Circulation.

"We don’t really understand why fine particles may cause this decrease in vascular reactivity," said O’Neill. "Further research is needed to confirm this association between air pollution and vascular health and to understand what causes people with diabetes to be especially sensitive."

Researchers recruited 270 greater Boston metropolitan residents and divided them into two groups. The first group consisted of subjects with a positive diagnosis of type I or type II diabetes. The second group included subjects who were not diabetic, but who had a family history of diabetes or blood sugar levels slightly higher than normal.

The investigators used a technique called brachial artery ultrasound to assess blood vessel response in the study subjects. The measurement was obtained by applying a pressure cuff to the subject’s upper arm and cutting off the blood flow through the arm’s main artery. Researchers then released the cuff, allowing the blood to rush through. The researchers then evaluated changes in the diameter of the main artery as a result of the physical stress placed on the vessel.

"We observed an 11 percent decrease in diabetics’ vascular reactivity on days when sulfate particle concentrations were higher than normal," said O’Neill. "We also noted a 13 percent decrease in their vascular reactivity on days with higher-than-normal black carbon concentrations."

"We hope our study will remind people that reducing air pollution is important for everyone’s health, but especially for vulnerable members of our population, including the elderly and people with chronic health problems such as diabetes," she said.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which blood sugar levels are elevated because levels of insulin are too low. Insulin is the hormone needed to process sugars and starches into energy. Diabetes is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States, affecting some 13.3 million Americans. Research conducted in Montreal, Quebec from 1984 to 1993 showed that hospitalizations and deaths related to cardiovascular problems increased among diabetics when levels of air pollution were higher.

John Peterson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.niehs.nih.gov

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Study suggests possible new target for treating and preventing Alzheimer's
02.12.2016 | Oregon Health & Science University

nachricht The first analysis of Ewing's sarcoma methyloma opens doors to new treatments
01.12.2016 | IDIBELL-Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>