Trained eyes needed to spot small cancers, blood clots and aneurysms early
Nearly half of all patients who get their hearts scanned with a high-speed CT scanner may get a shocking surprise: a diagnosis of a serious problem that has nothing to do with their heart. New research from the University of Michigan shows that 43 of 98 patients who had a CT heart scan to look for clogged arteries were also found to have significant or potentially significant signs of problems with their lungs, blood vessels or organs. These discoveries ranged from possible lung cancer in 16 patients to potentially dangerous blood clots and aneurysms in 10 patients. The results are being presented here today at the American Roentgen Ray Societys annual meeting by cardiac imaging specialists from the U-M Cardiovascular Center.
The researchers say their data show just how important it is for trained radiologists to view heart CT scans, as is done at the U-M Health System, rather than having the scans read by heart specialists alone. They note that there has been explosive growth in the number of patients having CT scans to diagnose or monitor heart disease in recent years. "Many of these patients are having their scans at cardiology centers that may or may not employ a physician who specializes in radiology and has been trained to spot problems of any kind on medical images," says lead author Smita Patel, M.B.B.S., an assistant professor of radiology at the U-M Medical School and member of the U-M thoracic (chest) radiology team. "Our research suggests that may leave potentially serious problems undiagnosed. The trained eyes of radiologists are needed."
Kara Gavin | EurekAlert!
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Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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