Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

3 questions may provide good clues to smoke exposure

03.05.2005


Every day, in thousands of busy pediatric medical offices, doctors and nurses routinely use a variety of questions to determine which of their young patients are at risk for exposure to second-hand smoke in their homes.

But these don’t always provide a clear enough picture of a young child’s environment. Questions can be ambiguous or misunderstood by the child’s caregiver, or the caregiver may be consciously or unconsciously less than accurate with their answers.

A report, however, in the May 2 issue of JAMA’s Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine says that three significant but simple questions can provide an accurate prediction of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.



Asking a child’s primary caregiver – usually the mother -- the seemingly straightforward yes/no question “Do you smoke?” does not capture all of the information health care professionals need to gauge risk to the child, according to Judith A. Groner, a clinical professor in the department of pediatrics at The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health.

The study was conducted at Columbus Children’s Hospital where 291 mothers or primary caregivers, both self-reported smokers (120) and nonsmokers (171), completed questionnaires that provided answers on demographics and smoking habits. If applicable, the surveys also indicated the location (inside/outside) where smoking occurred, the smoking status of other household members or visitors to the home, and the location in the home where their smoking occurred.

In addition, researchers collected hair samples from 291 children, age 3 or younger, whose primary caregiver completed the survey. The hair samples were used to determine the amount of cotinine in the child’s body. Cotinine is a chemical transformed in the body from nicotine, which enters the body through inhaled cigarette smoke. Hair cotinine has been used in research to determine child ETS exposure, but the test is expensive and not widely available.

By comparing the questionnaire information to the analysis of hair cotinine levels, it was possible to develop a three-question model that determines the child’s ETS exposure risk category. “Many patients state that they smoke outdoors and/or smoke only a few cigarettes per day. We found that parental report of these factors did not impact on the child’s actual exposure as measured by hair cotinine,” said Groner, who is on the medical staff at Columbus Children’s Hospital.

“Our interpretation of this finding is that parents tell pediatricians what they perceive is the ‘socially desirable’ response – that they are not heavy smokers and that they do not expose their children.”

Although further research is needed and the study can be expanded, Groner says data from the study can be a helpful tool for health care practitioners assessing ETS risk in children younger than 3 years of age, the period most pediatricians acknowledge that children are most vulnerable.

In addition to asking “Do you smoke?” the study says following up with “Do others who live or frequently visit with you smoke?” and “Do they smoke indoors?” can provide added insight into the child’s environment.

The risk to children living in an environment with smokers is well documented. Tobacco smoke exposure is linked to an increased incidence of ear infections, pneumonia, asthma and other upper respiratory infections in children.

Additional authors are Robert Castile and Stacy Hoshaw-Woodward of The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health and Columbus Children’s Hospital, and Julia Klein and Gideon Korean of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.

The study was funded by the American Lung Association and Columbus Children’s Hospital Research Institute.

David Crawford | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.osu.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht TSRI researchers develop new method to 'fingerprint' HIV
29.03.2017 | Scripps Research Institute

nachricht Periodic ventilation keeps more pollen out than tilted-open windows
29.03.2017 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers shoot for success with simulations of laser pulse-material interactions

29.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Igniting a solar flare in the corona with lower-atmosphere kindling

29.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

As sea level rises, much of Honolulu and Waikiki vulnerable to groundwater inundation

29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>