Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Breast-Cancer Risk Linked to Exposure to Traffic Emissions at Menarche, First Birth

02.05.2005


Exposure to carcinogens in traffic emissions at particular lifetime points may increase the risk of developing breast cancer in women who are lifetime nonsmokers, a study by epidemiologists and geographers at the University at Buffalo has found.



Their study was conducted among women who lived in Erie and Niagara counties of New York State between 1996 and 2001. They found that higher exposure around the time of first menstruation to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), potential carcinogens found in traffic emissions, was associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

However, for postmenopausal women, higher exposure to PAHs at the time of the first birth was associated with increased risk. Neither association was found in women with a history of smoking.


Results of the study were presented earlier this month at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research held in Anaheim, Calif. Jing Nie, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in epidemiology in UB’s School of Public Health and Health Professions is first author on the study.

"There is growing evidence that there may be times in a woman’s life when exposures to potential carcinogens may be critical for breast-cancer initiation and development," said Nie. "Our study findings support the hypothesis that exposures in early life contribute to breast-cancer risk."

The study was based on data from the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study. All participants were women between the ages of 35 and 79 who lived in Erie or Niagara counties at the time of data collection. Women with primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer served as cases. Controls were randomly selected and matched to cases on age, race and county of residence.

Researchers in the WEB study conducted in-depth personal interviews with study participants to collect data on potential breast-cancer risk factors and a history of where they had lived at different times in their lives. Researchers were interested particularly in information related to four time periods: menarche (first menstrual period), first birth, 20 years prior to the interview and 10 years prior.

Several information sources provided data on traffic volumes on roads in question for the years from 1960 to 2002 and tail-pipe emissions, including measurements from tunnels and tests on individual vehicles. A geographic model was used to reconstruct historic traffic PAHs, using measurements of benzo[a]pyrene, a known potent mutagen and carcinogen, as a surrogate for total PAH exposure. Cruise emissions, cold engine emissions and intersection emissions were used to estimate total traffic PAH emissions.

In addition, meteorological information was used in a geographic dispersion model to determine PAH exposure at each participant’s residence.

While the researchers found increased risk for exposure at menarche and first birth for premenopausal and postmenopausal participants, respectively, who were lifetime nonsmokers, there was no association of traffic emissions with breast cancer for the other time periods.

Nie said these findings related to PAHs need to be interpreted with caution, because they could be explained by other compounds in vehicle exhaust or by other exposures related to the traffic emissions.

"While these results are subject to the limitations of epidemiologic observational studies, they are provocative in providing evidence both of the importance of early exposures and of the potential importance of an environmental agent in risk of breast cancer," said Nie. "Further examination of PAH exposure in early life is clearly warranted."

The UB researchers currently are examining whether genetic polymorphisms involving PAH metabolism may modify the risk, if lifeline cumulative exposure may be associated with the risk and if this study may be replicated in another geographic settings.

Jo Freudenheim, Ph.D., UB professor of social and preventive medicine, heads the WEB study.

Additional researchers were Jan Beyea, Ph.D., from Consulting in the Public Interest of Lambertville, N.J., who developed the geographic dispersion model; Matthew Bonner, Ph.D., of the National Cancer Institute (NCI); Daikwon Han, Ph.D., Dominica Vito, and Maurizio Trevisan, M.D., from the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, UB School of Public Health and Health Professions; and Peter Rogerson, Ph.D., of the Department of Geography, UB College of Arts and Sciences, along with John Vena, Ph.D., now at the University of South Carolina, and Paola Muti, M.D., now at Italy’s National Cancer Institute in Genoa.

The research was supported in part by grants from the U.S. Army Breast Cancer Research Program and NCI.

The University at Buffalo is a premier research-intensive public university, the largest and most comprehensive campus in the State University of New York.

Lois Baker | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.buffalo.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht 'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers
16.02.2018 | National University of Science and Technology MISIS

nachricht New process allows tailor-made malaria research
16.02.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

'Lipid asymmetry' plays key role in activating immune cells

20.02.2018 | Life Sciences

MRI technique differentiates benign breast lesions from malignancies

20.02.2018 | Medical Engineering

Major discovery in controlling quantum states of single atoms

20.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>