There are 300 million cases of malaria each year worldwide, causing one million deaths. Around 90% of these deaths occur in Africa, mostly in young children. One of the greatest challenges facing Africa in the fight against malaria is drug resistance; resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the cheapest and most widely used antimalarial, is common throughout Africa, and resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the first-developed and least expensive alternative to CQ, is also increasing. These trends have forced many countries to change their treatment policies and use more expensive drugs, including drug combinations that will hopefully slow the development of resistance and minimize transmission of resistant parasites.
Thick blood films from patients in Gambia with malaria. (Photo: Elisa Meier)
In this months premier open-access journal PLoS Medicine Colin Sutherland and colleagues from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine report the results of a randomized, controlled trial of 497 children in Uganda treated with one of two leading combination therapies. One regimen was an artemisinin-based combination consisting of artemether and lumefantrine (co-artemether, trade names CoArtem and Riamet). The other was a combination of CQ and SP - currently under consideration in several African countries, largely due to its low cost. Altogether, the six-dose regimen of co-artemether was highly effective at reducing whether and how long children had gametocytes - the infective form of the malarial parasite - in their blood. The numbers of gametocytes carried and how able they were to infect mosquitoes 7 days later was also reduced by the six dose regimen.
Although the results are promising, some patients may have difficulty taking a six-dose regimen, and as it also needs oily food for adequate absorption there might be inadequate drug levels in the blood of many treated individuals. The authors conclude that although co-artemether as a first-line treatment is not likely to reduce overall transmission of Plasmodium falciparum within the community it might reduce selective transmission of resistant parasites in treated patients.
GLUT5 fluorescent probe fingerprints cancer cells
20.04.2018 | Michigan Technological University
Scientists re-create brain neurons to study obesity and personalize treatment
20.04.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...
In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
20.04.2018 | Interdisciplinary Research
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy