Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Less cognitive impairment seen in women taking drug for osteoporosis

07.04.2005


A drug prescribed for the prevention of osteoporosis reduced women’s risk of mild cognitive impairment by 33 percent in a worldwide clinical trial led by researchers at San Francisco VA Medical Center (SFVAMC).



The drug, raloxifene, modulates the activity of the hormone estrogen. The finding was published in the April 2005 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects more than one-third of women and one-fifth of men aged 65 and older. It reduces short-term memory and is associated with a significantly increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease.


"No other intervention has been proven to reduce the risk of mild cognitive impairment," says Kristine Yaffe, MD, the principal investigator of the trial. Yaffe is UCSF associate professor of psychiatry, neurology and epidemiology and chief of geriatric psychiatry at SFVAMC.

Raloxifene is one of the most broadly prescribed drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis (it is also used to treat breast cancer). It is manufactured by Eli Lilly, which sponsored the trial, called the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE).

In the MORE trial, which took place at 180 clinical sites in 25 countries, 7,705 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were randomly assigned to take a daily dose of either 120 milligrams of raloxifene, 60 milligrams of raloxifene, or a placebo for three years. Participants at 161 sites -- 7,023 women -- were measured for cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study and every year thereafter; cognitively impaired women were kept in the study.

Over the course of the trial, 1,637 women dropped out. At the end of the study, the remaining 5,386 were evaluated for dementia. In those women, the 120 milligram dose conferred a 33 percent lower risk of developing mild cognitive impairment when compared with the 60 milligram dose and with placebo. The 60 milligram dose offered no apparent prevention of cognitive impairment. While researchers also observed a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, that reduction was of borderline statistical significance.

Like all drugs in its class, known as selective estrogen receptor modulators, raloxifene acts like an estrogen in some tissues and as an antiestrogen in others. The authors were unable from this study to determine the mechanism of action responsible for their finding, and whether the effect was due to the drug acting like an estrogen or an antiestrogen in the brain. However, they wrote, given that other studies have shown that estrogen reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive impairment, it is most likely that raloxifene has an estrogen-like effect on the central nervous system. According to Yaffe, it is probable that because the preventive effect involves estrogen, a female hormone, the results of the study do not apply to men; however, the study has no data to support this.

People with MCI tend to retain critical thinking and reasoning skills, but experience significant short-term memory loss. For example, they may experience trouble remembering the names of people they meet or the flow of a conversation, or have an increased tendency to misplace things. Researchers said MCI is associated with a significantly higher-than-normal risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia: about 1 percent per year for unimpaired people versus 10 to 15 percent for those with MCI. For this reason, says Yaffe, it is important that additional studies should be conducted on the potential of raloxifene and other selective estrogen receptor modulators to prevent cognitive impairment, particularly in women at high risk.

The MORE trial’s primary objective was to determine the appropriate dose of raloxifene needed to prevent bone fractures and maintain mineral bone density. A secondary objective was to evaluate the drug’s effectiveness in preventing cognitive impairment. The 5,386 women who were screened for dementia completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression scale and six cognitive tests at the beginning of the trial and once a year during the trial. Their scores at the end were compared to their baseline scores, and women suspected of cognitive impairment or the more-serious cognitive problem of dementia were evaluated by clinical experts and referred for further treatment. Those with dementia were also given brain scans with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to aid in their diagnosis and treatment.

In future research, Yaffe plans to look at other selective estrogen receptor modulators and their effect on cognition, and to investigate whether raloxifene may reduce cognitive impairment among women at high risk.

Steve Tokar | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsf.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Second cause of hidden hearing loss identified
20.02.2017 | Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan

nachricht Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain
20.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Positrons as a new tool for lithium ion battery research: Holes in the electrode

22.02.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New insights into the information processing of motor neurons

22.02.2017 | Life Sciences

Healthy Hiking in Smart Socks

22.02.2017 | Innovative Products

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>