Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New imaging method gives early indication if brain cancer therapy is effective

30.03.2005


Diffusion MRI shows 3 weeks into treatment if tumor is responding



A special type of MRI scan that measures the flow of water molecules through the brain can help doctors determine early in the course of brain cancer regimen if a patient’s tumor will shrink, a new study shows.

Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center developed the assessment, which they call a functional diffusion map. They used a magnetic resonance imaging scan that tracks the diffusion, or movement, of water through the brain and mapped the changes in diffusion from the start of therapy to three weeks later. The tumor cells block the flow of water, so as those cells die, water diffusion changes.


In the study of 20 people with malignant brain tumors, the researchers found that any change in the functional diffusion map predicted 10 weeks before traditional techniques if the tumor was responding to the chemotherapy or radiation therapy. This has potential to spare patients from weeks of a grueling treatment regimen that’s not working and gives doctors the opportunity to switch patients early on to a therapy that may be more effective.

Results of the study appear the week of March 28 in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Most primary brain tumors have a high mortality rate, with people surviving only 10 months after diagnosis. Typically, patients receive seven weeks of treatment, followed by a traditional MRI scan six weeks after completing therapy to determine if the tumor shrank. If the cancer did not respond to the treatment, a new approach may be tried.

Using diffusion MRI and the functional diffusion map, the U-M researchers were able to predict with 100 percent accuracy after only three weeks of treatment whether the therapy would be effective – 10 weeks before traditional methods would show a response.

"This is an important issue in terms of patient quality of life. Do you want to go through seven weeks of treatment only to find two months later that it had no effect? Using MRI tumor diffusion values to accurately predict the treatment response early on could allow some patients to switch to a more beneficial therapy and avoid the side effects of a prolonged and ineffective treatment," said Brian Ross, Ph.D., professor of radiology and biological chemistry at the U-M Medical School and a member of the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Center.

In the study, 20 participants with brain tumors underwent diffusion MRI before beginning a new treatment involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination. Three weeks later, they had another diffusion MRI. After finishing their treatment, the participants underwent standard MRI to determine whether their tumor responded to the therapy.

After three weeks – more than two months before the final MRI scan – researchers found significant differences between the patients’ scans. Some areas reflected an increase in water diffusion, suggesting tumor cell death; other areas saw a decrease in diffusion, which Ross said could be accounted for by the swelling some cells undergo before dying; and in some participants, researchers saw no change in diffusion.

"In the end, we found if the diffusion changes in any way, up or down, it correlates to a positive outcome. The magnitude or amount of change relates to the effectiveness of treatment. This indicates a different mixture of cell death pathways within the tumors. In the end, any change is good. When you think about it, if the treatment is not having an effect, the tumor will continue to grow without any change to water diffusion," Ross said.

The researchers found that for each of the 20 patients, a change in the diffusion MRI accurately predicted the tumor’s response. Researchers plan to test the technique with breast cancer and head and neck cancer.

In addition to Ross, U-M study authors are Bradford Moffat, Ph.D., assistant professor of radiology; Thomas Chenevert, Ph.D., professor of radiology; Theodore Lawrence, M.D., Ph.D., Isadore Lampe Professor and Chair of Radiation Oncology; Charles Meyer, Ph.D., professor of radiology; Timothy Johnson, Ph.D., adjunct assistant professor and assistant research scientist in biostatistics; Qian Dong, M.D., a radiology fellow; Christina Tsien, M.D., lecturer in radiation oncology; Suresh Mukherji, M.D., associate professor of radiology; Douglas Quint, M.D., professor of radiology; Stephen Gebarski, M.D., professor of radiology; Patricia Robertson, M.D., associate professor of neurology and of pediatrics and communicable diseases; Larry Junck, M.D., professor of neurology; and Alnawaz Rehemtulla, Ph.D., associate professor of environmental health sciences, radiation oncology and radiology.

Nicole Fawcett | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.umich.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht GLUT5 fluorescent probe fingerprints cancer cells
20.04.2018 | Michigan Technological University

nachricht Scientists re-create brain neurons to study obesity and personalize treatment
20.04.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled

24.04.2018 | Life Sciences

Scientists create innovative new 'green' concrete using graphene

24.04.2018 | Materials Sciences

BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

24.04.2018 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>