Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Invasive pneumonia and antibiotic resistance decreased after childhood vaccine introduced

18.03.2005


Scientists at Emory University and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program find powerful positive effect on both children and unvaccinated adults



The problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis, was dramatically reversed following the licensing and use of a new conjugate vaccine for young children in February 2000, according to research conducted at Emory University, the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Georgia Division of Public Health. The researchers also found a significant decrease in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated adults after the vaccine was introduced.

The research, led by David S. Stephens, MD, professor and vice chair of medicine and division director of infectious diseases in Emory University School of Medicine, was published in the March 5, 2005 issue of The Lancet.


Following approval of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children in the U.S. in February 2000, the vaccine was in general use in Atlanta by the end of 2000. Antibiotic resistance in pneumonia, after increasing steadily in Atlanta from 4.5 per 100,000 in 1994 to 9.3 per 100,000 in 1999 (more than 25 percent of invasive pneumococcal isolates), fell to 2.9 per 100,000 by 2002. The incidence of invasive pneumonia in Atlanta fell from a mean annual incidence of 30.2 per 100,000 in the period January 1994 to December 1999 to 13.1 per 100,000 in 2002.

The most striking reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease were in the youngest children, which also was the age group targeted to receive the vaccine. Children younger than two years old experienced an 82 percent decrease in invasive disease, and children two to four years old had a 71 percent decrease.

In addition to declining rates of pneumonia in young children, the researchers also found significant drops in adults aged 20-39 (54 percent), 40-64 (25 percent) and 65 and older (39 percent) who did not receive vaccine, an effect known as "herd immunity."

Increases in antibiotic resistance by S. pneumoniae are also a problem in other parts of the U.S., Canada, Europe, Africa and Asia. Resistance increased dramatically after the introduction and widespread use of new macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin and clarithromycin, especially in children younger than five years.

The Atlanta research team studied pneumococcal isolates and demographic data from patients with invasive disease. They calculated cumulative incidence rates for invasive pneumonia from 1994 to 2002 using population estimates and census data from the U.S. Census Bureau.

The decline in invasive pneumococcal disease and in macrolide resistance occurred even though there were substantial shortages of the childhood vaccine between 2001 and 2003. "The decline in antibiotic resistance in invasive pneumococci in Atlanta between 2000 and 2002 was the result of introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine," says Dr. Stephens. "The vaccine had both direct and herd immunity effects as shown by the striking decline in disease incidence in children under five years, as well as in adults who were not vaccinated."

Other possible explanations for the reductions in invasive disease and antibiotic resistance were not convincing, Dr. Stephens notes. "Our study showed just how quickly vaccines can become effective in overcoming antibiotic resistance, but also just how quickly antibiotic resistance can spread when antibiotics are used inappropriately. It will be important to continue combining vaccines with programs that emphasize appropriate use of antibiotics."

Holly Korschun | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.emory.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

nachricht NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Previous evidence of water on mars now identified as grainflows

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope completes final cryogenic testing

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond

21.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>