The link between health problems and children in low income, single-mother families is not surprising; these children are also more apt to be exposed to violence and maltreatment within the community and their families. A study in the March issue of The Journal of Pediatrics examines whether traumatic stress reactions in children due to these adverse childhood experiences also play a role in predicting their health.
Sandra Graham-Bermann, Ph.D. and Julia Seng, Ph.D., CNM, from the University of Michigan interviewed the mothers and teachers of 160 children, ages four through six, recruited from Head Start programs in two Michigan counties. They found that 65% of the children were exposed to at least one incident of violence in their communities, which ranged from less severe (beatings and chasings) to severe (shootings, stabbings, and rapes). 47% were exposed to at least one incident of violence in their families, such as child maltreatment and domestic violence. 90% of those exposed to some form of violence had reactions characterized as traumatic stress (i.e. having nightmares, thumb-sucking, or bed-wetting), and 20% were at high risk for developing post traumatic stress disorder.
Nearly one-third of the children had allergies, asthma, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children who had one or more of these three health problems were significantly more likely to have been exposed to violence within the family and to have shown signs of traumatic stress. Children with asthma or gastrointestinal problems were almost four times more likely to have post traumatic stress disorder than the children without these health problems. Dr. Graham-Bermann points out that the direction of these effects--in other words, whether post traumatic stress disorder causes illnesses or illnesses cause post traumatic stress disorder--is presently unknown. The research also indicated that substance abuse and the overall health of the mother were factors in predicting childrens health problems.
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Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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