Topical treatment shown to inhibit HIV and herpes simplex virus infection
Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers demonstrated that a gel applied in the vagina provides protection from both the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the herpes simplex Virus. The study, presented at the 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, is the first to show that a gel can retain anti-viral activity within the human vagina.
The study, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) investigated the efficacy of PRO 2000, a topical microbicide under development by Indevus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. "There is an urgent need for the development of safe and effective vaginal microbicides," Marla Keller, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and the researcher who presented the data. "While condoms offer protection against sexually transmitted infections, their effectiveness is limited because they require partner initiation or consent."
According to the United Nations 2004 report on the global AIDS epidemic, an estimated 40 million people worldwide are living with HIV, and women account for nearly half of those infected. As stated by the World Health Organization, unprotected sex is the predominant mode of HIV transmission, and genital herpes plays a major role in the sexual spread of HIV.
The researchers conducted a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study among 20 HIV-infected women to assess the antiviral activity of PRO 2000 in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid collected before and one hour after administration of a single intravaginal dose of PRO 2000 gel or a matched placebo gel. CVL specimens were tested for their ability to prevent HIV and HSV infection of susceptible human cells in culture. Levels of inflammatory cytokines were also measured as markers of acute inflammation.
Analyses showed that CVL obtained after the application of PRO 2000 gel reduced both HIV and HSV infectivity by at least 1000-fold compared to CVL obtained at baseline. The effects were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). In contrast, CVL collected from placebo gel recipients showed little or no anti-viral effect. Furthermore, the researchers found similar low levels of inflammatory cytokines in CVL collected from the drug and placebo groups, indicating that PRO 2000 application did not induce an acute inflammatory response.
"An inflammatory responses could potentially increase susceptibility to HIV and limit any protective effect of microbicides." said Betsy Herold, M.D., Professor of Medicine and Chief of Pediatric Infectious Disease at Mount Sinai and the senior investigator on this study. "We are currently conducting a 14-day study to assess whether or not there is an inflammatory response after repeated applications."
Mount Sinai Press Office | EurekAlert!
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...