Contaminated needles not contributing to spread of HIV in Africa
Injections with dirty or contaminated needles are not contributing to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa say researchers from Imperial College London and the Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Zimbabwe.
Recently, some scientists have suggested that medical injections with contaminated needles were an important, but ignored, factor in the spread of HIV across sub-Saharan Africa. However, research published today in Public Library of Science Medicine shows that injections with dirty needles are not a major source of HIV transmission in rural Zimbabwe.
Dr Ben Lopman from Imperial College London, based at St Mary’s Hospital, and one of the researchers, says: “Some have speculated that unsafe medical injections are driving the continuing spread of HIV in many sub-Saharan African countries, but with this research we are now able to confidently exclude injections as a major transmission route.”
The researchers analysed data from the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Study, which had recruited 1847 men and women aged between 15 and 54 to the three year study. The study collected a range of health and socio-demographic data including self-reported history of STD symptoms and whether the participants had received any medical injections or needle pricks.
40.3 percent received an injection or needle prick during the three year study period, but these individuals were no more likely to acquire HIV than individuals who did not receive injections.
Despite the increased number of injections involved with childbearing and pregnancy there was no link to increased risk of HIV infection.
Dr Simon Gregson, from the Biomedical Research and Training Institute in Harare, Zimbabwe, and one of the researchers, says: “Clearly, it is still possible for an individual to get HIV through unsafe medical injections, but, overall in this population in Zimbabwe, unsafe injections are not an important cause of HIV infection.”
The Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Study was supported by the Wellcome Trust, UNAIDS and CDC Zimbabwe.
Tony Stephenson | alfa
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...