Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Migration and AIDS: social control, a brake on the spread of HIV in Senegal?

15.02.2005


The mechanisms that govern the relation between personal mobility and transmission of the AIDS virus (HIV) are still poorly known. Surveys conducted in the River Senegal Valley by two demographers from the IRD and the University of Montreal suggest that the way individuals returning to their community of origin deal with sexual risks depends on the migratory paths (internal or international migrations) and the social pressures prevailing in that community. Such influences cause most migrants to give up any risky sexual behaviour they might have adopted when they were away. Migration could therefore play only a small role in spreading HIV within the ’home’ community. This could partly explain why AIDS prevalence in Senegal remains lower than in other West African countries.



Ever since AIDS appeared, migration has been thought to be a driving force behind the epidemic. The disease is often represented either as an "imported pathology", migrants being the disease (or at least risk), carriers or as a "pathology of adaptation". Migrants, mainly young men who move around to find work, are subjected to the constraints of a new environment they find in the host region or country. They therefore become economically, socially and emotionally more vulnerable. This situation encourages changes in their sexual behaviour, like multiplication of casual partners and resorting to prostitutes.

Demographers Richard Lalou (IRD) (1) and Victor Piché (University of Montreal) focused on this relation between mobility and sexual behaviour. Findings of surveys performed in 2000 in the River Senegal Valley, among 1320 persons aged between 15 and 49 years old, provided data on the routes taken by the migrants and their personal situations. The ability of these migrants to handle sexual risks of transmitting HIV differed according to the social contexts of the communities they were going back into. Two locations with highly contrasting social situations were studied: the urban centre of Richard-Toll (in the lower valley) and the rural area of Matam (in the middle of the valley). At Richard-Toll international emigration was turned towards countries having low HIV prevalence (Mauritania), whereas the Matam area is the source of substantial international emigration towards countries with higher prevalence (Ivory Coast, Central Africa). In spite of these movements towards countries with high prevalence of HIV seropositive cases, the infection rate in the Matam area remained constant in the years between 1990 and 2002 (about 2%). In these surveys, international mobility, which aims for an African country or another continent, has been distinguished from internal mobility which concerns movements within the country, mainly towards the large towns and cities (Dakar, Saint-Louis and Thiès), and short temporary trips away.


Generally, once migrants arrive in the host community, their sexual behaviour changes to open the way to increased risk of HIV infection. This is the case of migrants from the River Senegal Valley who, with the exception of those on short-term missions, have more frequent sexual relations with casual partners and professionals of the sex trade during their stay than before their departure (2). On their return, many of these migrants give up their risky behaviour. This tendency is stronger overall among international migrants (80% abandon such practices) than in internal migrants (56%). It is also a little more pronounced in the Matam area than at Richard-Toll (72% compared with 62 %).

The migrants who come back to the town of Richard-Toll do not appear to have a sex life any different from fellow inhabitants who had not been away. However, migrants returning to their rural area of Matam would adopt risky sexual behaviour less frequently than people who had stayed put. Social systems and religion (Islam founded on orthodox practices) could therefore favour strict social control, especially in a rural situation (Matam).

Thus, in the Matam region, the international migrants’ choice of fidelity, on their return, does not represent only a concern for health. It responds above all to the wish to respect the social norms of the community, in a guiding principle of conformity, to avoid the risk of being stigmatized. These migrants, who had left their home country, are in fact implicitly accused of being "disease importers". In parallel, they play an important economic role, owing to the financial power they acquired during their stay away. Indeed, when they come back they have a core place in their community.

In contrast, the migrants who did not leave the country are not considered by society as potential carriers of diseases. They do not therefore necessarily change social status when they return. For them, the risk of contamination is more directly associated with sexual conduct, and therefore with a clearly health-based strategy. Without necessarily giving up relations with different partners, they consequently tend to protect themselves more readily with condoms. In this case, the internal migrants, like their community, do not give their sexuality a social signification any different from before they left home.

The experience of migration alters sexual behaviour only in certain social contexts and depends on the social position of migrants on their return to their original circle. Those who come back, like any other person, adjust their behaviour according to the situation, their itinerary, experience and their perceptions. According to the survey results, migration has not been contributing to conditions favouring HIV infection, at least up to 2000 (3). The social context appears to have an influence that favours control of the epidemic. It partly explains the constant low prevalence of AIDS in Senegal. However, the success of programmes for the prevention of HIV transmission depends on individual behaviour but also on a collective protective role of the community with regard to migrants’ wives, who are particularly vulnerable.

Hélène Deval | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ird.fr

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Correct connections are crucial
26.06.2017 | Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin

nachricht One gene closer to regenerative therapy for muscular disorders
01.06.2017 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Study shines light on brain cells that coordinate movement

26.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Smooth propagation of spin waves using gold

26.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Switchable DNA mini-machines store information

26.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>