Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Emergency department study supports giving dehydrated children fluids by mouth

07.02.2005


Therapy is quicker, less invasive than IV therapy

Oral rehydration therapy, or giving fluids by mouth, is equally effective as giving intravenous fluids to young children dehydrated by common stomach and intestinal inflammations, according to a new study by emergency medicine physicians. Because oral therapy can be started more quickly and is less painful for the child than IV treatment, the researchers say it should be the preferred treatment for children with moderate dehydration.

The research, performed in the emergency department of The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, supports previous recommendations by expert groups such as the American Association of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization. The study appears in the February issue of Pediatrics.



Gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestine, causes stomach pain, diarrhea, fever and vomiting in young children, especially during the winter months. The loss of fluids may cause a potentially dangerous dehydration, resulting in some 10 percent of hospitalizations in American children under age five.

Busy hospital emergency departments, such as The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, see hundreds of children each year with this condition, frequently caused by infection with rotavirus. "Our study shows that oral rehydration therapy is as effective as intravenous fluid therapy in rehydrating moderately dehydrated children," said Philip Spandorfer, M.D., a pediatric emergency physician at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and primary researcher on the study. "Currently, the majority of pediatric emergency physicians continue to use I.V. therapy for these children, both because they believe parents and referring physicians expect it, and because they believe oral therapy is time-consuming."

There are many benefits to oral rehydration therapy (ORT) that make it more desirable than intravenous fluid therapy (IVF). Patients treated with ORT do not require intravenous access, a potentially painful and difficult procedure in young children. Also, parents who learn to administer ORT correctly have acquired a skill that can be used at home for ongoing and future illnesses.

A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in the emergency department at Children’s Hospital from December 2001 through April 2003. Seventy-three children between 8 weeks and 3 years were enrolled in the study. Of the 73 patients, 36 were randomized to receive oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and 37 were randomized to receive intravenous fluid therapy (IVF). Less than one third of the group that received ORT required hospitalization, whereas almost half of the IVF group was hospitalized. Patients in the ORT group received small amounts of fluid (Pedialyte) over a period of four hours. After instruction, parents provided the fluid (Pedialyte) to their children.

Half of the participants in both groups were rehydrated successfully in four hours. The time required to start therapy was less in the ORT group, at just under 20 minutes compared to 41 minutes in the IVF group. Physicians also obtained 72-hour post-ED visit information through a follow-up phone call to all participants. Researchers used sham I.V.s so that treating physicians did not know which children were in each group.

"By the end of the study, we realized that most families prefer to start with the oral rehydration therapy for treatment of moderate dehydration," said Dr. Spandorfer. "It is our hope that this study may support greater adoption of ORT by emergency physicians."

Dr. Spandorfer’s co-authors were Evaline Alessandrini, M.D., M.S.C.E.; Mark D. Joffe, M.D.; Russell Localio, M.S.; and Kathy N. Shaw, M.D. All are from the Division of Emergency Medicine at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Joey Marie McCool | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.chop.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Nanoparticles as a Solution against Antibiotic Resistance?
15.12.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Plasmonic biosensors enable development of new easy-to-use health tests
14.12.2017 | Aalto University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>