Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Calcium may protect women from cancer

28.01.2005


U of MN research shows calcium can help prevent colorectal cancer

A University of Minnesota Cancer Center study found that women consuming more than 800 milligrams of calcium each day reduced their risk of colorectal cancer by as much as 26 to 46 percent. A 26 percent reduction in risk of colorectal cancer occurred regardless of whether the calcium intake was from diet or supplement. Among women who consumed high levels of calcium from both diet and supplements, the risk reduction was almost double that observed for calcium from either source by itself.

The results of the study appear in this month’s Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention journal. Andrew Flood, Ph.D., epidemiologist with the University of Minnesota Cancer Center and School of Public Health, led the study in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The study involved 45,354 women in the United States who did not have a history of colorectal cancer. The women were categorized into groups according to information they provided about their diets and lifestyles. The women averaged 61.9 years of age upon entering the study and they were followed in the study for an average of 8.5 years. This study began in 1987 and closed in 1997. During that time, 482 women in the study developed colorectal cancer.



"It is especially notable that the risk reduction was present regardless of the source of the calcium, and that simultaneously consuming high levels of calcium from both diet and supplements further reduced risk," Flood said. "These observations suggest that it was the calcium per se, and not merely dairy products or some other variable that accounted for the reduction in risk." The findings provide further evidence in a growing body of research that indicates a link between calcium and prevention of colorectal cancer. This study is good news for women because they comprise about half of the approximately 150,000 people in the United States diagnosed annually with colorectal cancer. The cancer ranks as the second leading cause of cancer death, and the risk of contracting it increases with age.

Flood notes that more research needs to be done to understand why and how calcium provides protection against colorectal cancer in some women. "We really don’t know at this point," Flood said. "There are currently two main theories. One is that calcium has the ability to neutralize secondary bile acids that are produced during the digestion of fat and are highly irritating to the cells in the lining of the colon. The evidence in support of this theory is not very strong.

"An alternate theory is that calcium has a direct impact on a whole series of biochemical pathways within the cells that line the colon and rectum. These pathways play important roles in regulating how these cells grow and mature and thus, can be important components of the cancer process."

To put the study results in perspective, Flood says consuming a diet rich in calcium – one that provides at least 800 mg per day, which is actually lower than the current recommended daily allowance of 1,200 mg per day--is a safe and effective way for women to help guard themselves against colorectal cancer.

As for the benefit of calcium for men, he said, "The results of this study are consistent with other studies that show calcium reduces risk of colorectal cancer in both women and men. A note of caution for men, however, is that dairy foods, the primary source of calcium in the U.S. diet, have been linked in some studies to increased risk of prostate cancer."

More about the study

The 45,354 women in this study were selected from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP), which was a breast cancer screening program conducted jointly by NCI and the American Cancer Society between 1973-1980. The women initially completed a 62-item questionnaire that assessed their usual daily diet, lifestyle habits and patterns, and use of over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines. A separate series of questions asked about their intake of calcium from supplements, whether multivitamins or calcium-specific.

The information received was used to categorize the women into five equally sized groups. The groups were ranked in order of increasing calcium intake, based on the dietary practices the women reported at the start of the study. Women in the lowest group consumed less than 412.3 mg of calcium from diet each day. Compared to the low-consuming group, women in the four higher groups (412.4-528.9 mg/d; 529.0-656.2 mg/d; 656.3-830.9 mg/d; and greater than 830.9 mg/d) all showed reduced risk of developing colorectal cancer over the course of the study.

Women in the highest group of dietary calcium intake – greater than 830 mg/d – had a 26 percent lower risk of developing colorectal cancer compared to women in the lowest group.
The women also were divided into groups based on their intake of calcium from supplements. Women who reported consuming 800 mg/d of calcium from supplements had a 24 percent lower risk of developing colorectal cancer than women who took no calcium from supplements. The researchers further found that high intake of calcium from both diet and supplements reduced risk even more than calcium from either source alone. Women who consumed more than 412.4 mg/d of calcium from diet and also consumed more than 800 mg/d from supplements had a 46 percent lower risk of colorectal cancer than women who consumed less than 412 mg/d from diet and less than 800 mg/d from supplements.

This study was funded by NCI. In addition to Andrew Flood, researchers on the study were Ulrike Peters, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, Seattle; and Nilanjan Chatterjee, James Lacy, Jr., Catherine Schairer and Arthur Schatzkin, all with NCI in Bethesda, MD

Mary Lawson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cancer.umn.edu
http://www.umn.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease
22.08.2017 | Duke University

nachricht Once invincible superbug squashed by 'superteam' of antibiotics
22.08.2017 | University at Buffalo

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease

22.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Meter-sized single-crystal graphene growth becomes possible

22.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells

22.08.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>