Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Calcium may protect women from cancer

28.01.2005


U of MN research shows calcium can help prevent colorectal cancer

A University of Minnesota Cancer Center study found that women consuming more than 800 milligrams of calcium each day reduced their risk of colorectal cancer by as much as 26 to 46 percent. A 26 percent reduction in risk of colorectal cancer occurred regardless of whether the calcium intake was from diet or supplement. Among women who consumed high levels of calcium from both diet and supplements, the risk reduction was almost double that observed for calcium from either source by itself.

The results of the study appear in this month’s Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention journal. Andrew Flood, Ph.D., epidemiologist with the University of Minnesota Cancer Center and School of Public Health, led the study in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The study involved 45,354 women in the United States who did not have a history of colorectal cancer. The women were categorized into groups according to information they provided about their diets and lifestyles. The women averaged 61.9 years of age upon entering the study and they were followed in the study for an average of 8.5 years. This study began in 1987 and closed in 1997. During that time, 482 women in the study developed colorectal cancer.



"It is especially notable that the risk reduction was present regardless of the source of the calcium, and that simultaneously consuming high levels of calcium from both diet and supplements further reduced risk," Flood said. "These observations suggest that it was the calcium per se, and not merely dairy products or some other variable that accounted for the reduction in risk." The findings provide further evidence in a growing body of research that indicates a link between calcium and prevention of colorectal cancer. This study is good news for women because they comprise about half of the approximately 150,000 people in the United States diagnosed annually with colorectal cancer. The cancer ranks as the second leading cause of cancer death, and the risk of contracting it increases with age.

Flood notes that more research needs to be done to understand why and how calcium provides protection against colorectal cancer in some women. "We really don’t know at this point," Flood said. "There are currently two main theories. One is that calcium has the ability to neutralize secondary bile acids that are produced during the digestion of fat and are highly irritating to the cells in the lining of the colon. The evidence in support of this theory is not very strong.

"An alternate theory is that calcium has a direct impact on a whole series of biochemical pathways within the cells that line the colon and rectum. These pathways play important roles in regulating how these cells grow and mature and thus, can be important components of the cancer process."

To put the study results in perspective, Flood says consuming a diet rich in calcium – one that provides at least 800 mg per day, which is actually lower than the current recommended daily allowance of 1,200 mg per day--is a safe and effective way for women to help guard themselves against colorectal cancer.

As for the benefit of calcium for men, he said, "The results of this study are consistent with other studies that show calcium reduces risk of colorectal cancer in both women and men. A note of caution for men, however, is that dairy foods, the primary source of calcium in the U.S. diet, have been linked in some studies to increased risk of prostate cancer."

More about the study

The 45,354 women in this study were selected from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP), which was a breast cancer screening program conducted jointly by NCI and the American Cancer Society between 1973-1980. The women initially completed a 62-item questionnaire that assessed their usual daily diet, lifestyle habits and patterns, and use of over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines. A separate series of questions asked about their intake of calcium from supplements, whether multivitamins or calcium-specific.

The information received was used to categorize the women into five equally sized groups. The groups were ranked in order of increasing calcium intake, based on the dietary practices the women reported at the start of the study. Women in the lowest group consumed less than 412.3 mg of calcium from diet each day. Compared to the low-consuming group, women in the four higher groups (412.4-528.9 mg/d; 529.0-656.2 mg/d; 656.3-830.9 mg/d; and greater than 830.9 mg/d) all showed reduced risk of developing colorectal cancer over the course of the study.

Women in the highest group of dietary calcium intake – greater than 830 mg/d – had a 26 percent lower risk of developing colorectal cancer compared to women in the lowest group.
The women also were divided into groups based on their intake of calcium from supplements. Women who reported consuming 800 mg/d of calcium from supplements had a 24 percent lower risk of developing colorectal cancer than women who took no calcium from supplements. The researchers further found that high intake of calcium from both diet and supplements reduced risk even more than calcium from either source alone. Women who consumed more than 412.4 mg/d of calcium from diet and also consumed more than 800 mg/d from supplements had a 46 percent lower risk of colorectal cancer than women who consumed less than 412 mg/d from diet and less than 800 mg/d from supplements.

This study was funded by NCI. In addition to Andrew Flood, researchers on the study were Ulrike Peters, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, Seattle; and Nilanjan Chatterjee, James Lacy, Jr., Catherine Schairer and Arthur Schatzkin, all with NCI in Bethesda, MD

Mary Lawson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cancer.umn.edu
http://www.umn.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Laser activated gold pyramids could deliver drugs, DNA into cells without harm
24.03.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

nachricht What does congenital Zika syndrome look like?
24.03.2017 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>