Over the past five years, so-called molecularly targeted therapies for cancer have held out great promise. These therapies are based on blocking a cancer-causing genetic pathway that has been turned on in a tumor, thereby allowing it to proliferate and grow in an uncontrolled manner. For a small number of cancers, chronic treatment with molecularly targeted therapies has been shown to be effective in the clinic – at least in the short-term. Recently, based on animal models, several investigators have proposed that chronic treatment – possibly even brief treatment – with molecularly targeted therapies might eliminate cancers. Curing cancers with short-term treatment, however, contrasts sharply with clinical experience with cancer patients, say Penn researchers. This suggests that tumors often become resistant to therapy by finding a way around the genetic blockade.
Using a model for breast cancer, researchers in the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute of the University of Pennsylvania report that after blocking the gene c-MYC, which is commonly overexpressed in human breast cancers, the tumor still persists. Senior author Lewis A. Chodosh, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Cancer Biology and Medicine, and colleagues report their findings in the December issue of Cancer Cell.
Specifically, the group found that after turning off c-MYC in a mouse model, 50 percent of c-MYC-induced mammary cancers were still able to grow. They also found that residual cancer cells persisted in all animals – even those that were seemingly cancer-free. These residual cells quickly recovered their malignant properties either spontaneously or after the researchers reactivated MYC. Additionally, by sequentially turning the MYC gene on and off in these tumors in order to simulate the treatment of patients with multiple rounds of a molecularly targeted therapy, the investigators found that nearly every tumor eventually progressed to a state that was no longer dependent upon MYC for growth.
Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
On track to heal leukaemia
18.01.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern
Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.01.2017 | Life Sciences