Triple-drug antiretroviral regimens that are widely used in the United States and Europe against one HIV-1 subtype appear to be effective in South African patients infected with a different HIV-1 subtype who also have tuberculosis (TB) or Kaposis sarcoma (KS), according to a study published in the Feb.1 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online. The South African subtype, known as subtype C, is rapidly spreading in developing countries, where TB and KS are major factors in AIDS morbidity and mortality. Since the triple-drug regimens have markedly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with the subtype that predominates in developed countries (subtype B), the implication is that they may be similarly effective against the C subtype in developing countries as well.
The authors, Edana Cassol and coworkers in Durban, South Africa and the United States, studied 49 patients with previously untreated HIV-1 infection, 21 of whom had pulmonary TB and 28 of whom had KS. Patients in the TB group first received standard TB treatment, then an antiretroviral combination that has been successfully used to treat HIV-1 subtype B infections in patients with active TB--didanosine, lamivudine, and efavirenz, all purchased from Western manufacturers. KS patients received a combination of generic stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine, all manufactured in India; some also received cancer chemotherapy. Responses to antiretroviral therapy were measured in part by plasma HIV RNA levels and the number of peripheral blood CD4 cells, which help to orchestrate immune responses.
After three months, 94 percent of the TB group and 80 percent of the Kaposi group had undetectable HIV RNA levels--rates equivalent to or better than those in studies involving Western patients infected with the B subtype. The decrease occurred rapidly during the first 7 days of treatment, then gradually until virus was undetectable--a pattern reported in Western B subtype-infected patients. Similarly, both TB patients and KS patients experienced an early rise in CD4 cell numbers, then a small decrease, followed by a second increase--a pattern also noted in patients treated for subtype B infection.
Steve Baragona | EurekAlert!
Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution
09.12.2016 | Veterans Affairs Research Communications
Oxygen can wake up dormant bacteria for antibiotic attacks
08.12.2016 | Penn State
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine