Early results shed light on lung cancer screening advance
One in three smokers or former smokers screened for lung cancer at a baseline and one year follow-up visit using a recent advance in computed tomography tested positive according to a new study. Of those, 12 percent had lung biopsies, and 7 percent were diagnosed with lung cancer. The findings, along with detailed characterizations of practiced follow-up patterns, appear in the January 1, 2005 issue of CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society.
Low dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) is currently being evaluated as a more effective alternative to chest radiographs for lung cancer screening through the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST). LDCT can identify small lesions than x-ray, however, studies have yet to show any improvement in lung cancer mortality using the test.
Paul F. Pinsky, Ph.D. of the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland and his colleagues reviewed medical records pertaining to the follow-up of more than 1500 current or former smokers who received LDCT as part of the Lung Screening Study, a multi-center pilot study testing the feasibility of a large-scale nationwide trial. The researchers say 522 were found to have abnormal lung findings. Of those, 12 percent underwent biopsy, 55 percent had a follow-up CT scan but no biopsy, 12 percent were compared to prior x-ray or CT scan, 4 percent had only a clinical exam, and 3 percent received no follow-up. A total of 37 of the 522 subjects (7 percent) were diagnosed with lung cancer within a year of the first positive screen.
The investigators found that only a minority of subjects received a diagnostic work-up according to published algorithms. While biopsy was less likely the smaller the nodule size, surprisingly, the more positive LDCTs the radiologist identified, the lower the rate of the use of biopsy for diagnostic follow-up.
Also, few subjects received follow-up CT in the time commonly recommended for nodule size. For example, only 11 percent of subjects with 4-9mm nodules and 24 percent with 10+mm nodules received a follow-up CT within the recommended 4 months.
In describing the patterns of diagnostic follow-up for people with abnormal findings on LDCT, the authors conclude, the "data may be useful in estimating the potential burden and cost of CT screening and in evaluating whether practitioners are generally following reasonable procedures in their work-up of positive CT screens."
David Greenberg | EurekAlert!
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...