In a Perspective article in the Nov. 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, Dr. Fabio Cominelli, chief of the division of gastroenterology and hepatology at the University of Virginia Health System reports that a dysregulated response by the innate immune system- the body’s initial, non-specific response to infection- may have more to do with the development of Crohn’s than acquired immunity, currently thought by many to be the most likely suspect.
Patients, physicians and medical researchers need to reconsider traditional hypotheses about the biological processes that underlie Crohn’s disease, according to Cominelli, a leading Crohn’s expert. More than half a million people in the U.S. suffer from Crohn’s,a chronic disease involving inflammation of the intestines.
Cominelli indicates that more cytokines- proteins that coordinate the immune response in inflammation- may be involved in Crohn’s than scientists had previously thought. He believes that a growing body of evidence shows that both type 1 and type 2 helper T-cells are likely involved in the early stages of Crohn’s disease. The classic paradigm held that cytokines secreted by type 1 T-cells, such as TNF (tumor necrosis factor), interleukin-12 and interferon-g were primarily responsible for Crohn’s, while type 2 cytokines were linked to ulcerative colitis, another type of inflammatory bowel disease.
Bob Beard | EurekAlert!
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Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
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For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
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An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
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A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
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