In a Perspective article in the Nov. 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, Dr. Fabio Cominelli, chief of the division of gastroenterology and hepatology at the University of Virginia Health System reports that a dysregulated response by the innate immune system- the body’s initial, non-specific response to infection- may have more to do with the development of Crohn’s than acquired immunity, currently thought by many to be the most likely suspect.
Patients, physicians and medical researchers need to reconsider traditional hypotheses about the biological processes that underlie Crohn’s disease, according to Cominelli, a leading Crohn’s expert. More than half a million people in the U.S. suffer from Crohn’s,a chronic disease involving inflammation of the intestines.
Cominelli indicates that more cytokines- proteins that coordinate the immune response in inflammation- may be involved in Crohn’s than scientists had previously thought. He believes that a growing body of evidence shows that both type 1 and type 2 helper T-cells are likely involved in the early stages of Crohn’s disease. The classic paradigm held that cytokines secreted by type 1 T-cells, such as TNF (tumor necrosis factor), interleukin-12 and interferon-g were primarily responsible for Crohn’s, while type 2 cytokines were linked to ulcerative colitis, another type of inflammatory bowel disease.
Bob Beard | EurekAlert!
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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