Nicotines addictive hold increases when combined with other tobacco smoke chemicals
Smoking cessation efforts could be improved by studying nicotine interactions with acetaldehyde, according to UCI tobacco use researchers
Acetaldehyde, one of the main chemical components of tobacco smoke, appears to increase the addictive properties of nicotine, according to animal studies conducted by the UC Irvine Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center (TTURC). In addition, the researchers found that adolescents are most vulnerable to the rewarding effects of the nicotine-acetaldehyde combination.
Study results appear in the online version of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Nicotine is the primary chemical in cigarette smoke that causes addiction, yet when tested in animal studies, the draw of nicotine alone appears to be relatively weak compared to other abused drugs. Surprised by this phenomenon, UCI researchers conducted a series of studies in rodents to determine whether nicotine may interact with some of the other 4,000 components of tobacco smoke to enhance addictiveness. “We chose to study acetaldehyde because it is a major component of tobacco smoke, present in a one-to-two ratio to nicotine,” said James Belluzzi, lead researcher and adjunct professor of pharmacology in the UCI College of Medicine. “Additionally, there is evidence that acetaldehyde may play a role in alcohol addiction.”
Belluzzi, researcher Ruihua Wang and Frances Leslie, professor of pharmacology and TTURC director, evaluated possible acetaldehyde and nicotine interactions in a rigorous self-administration test. Adolescent and adult male rats were tested in a procedure during which each nose poke by the rodents delivered acetaldehyde or nicotine, a combination of both drugs, or saline. Adolescent animals quickly learned to self-administer the nicotine-acetaldehyde combination significantly more than saline or either drug alone. Furthermore, young adolescents were more responsive to the drug combination than older adolescents.
When adult animals were tested in identical experiments, they did not self-administer the nicotine-acetaldehyde mixture or either drug alone at levels significantly higher than saline. Belluzzi and his team also used self-administration tests of cocaine to test the reliability of the novel self-administration procedure and to evaluate whether early adolescence was a period of enhanced vulnerability to other abused drugs. Although adolescent rats are more responsive to the nicotine-acetaldehyde mix than adult rats, the young rats were not more responsive to cocaine than adults. “Our latest findings suggest that the study of tobacco addiction, as well as the development of smoking cessation treatments, could be improved by studying the interactions of nicotine with other smoke components,” Leslie said.
Tom Vasich | EurekAlert!
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...